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Ireland

Nation where English Protestant rulers employed brutal tactics against
the local Catholic population

Roanoke Island

Island colony founded by Sir Walter Raleigh that mysteriously
disappeared in the 1580s

Spanish Armada

Naval invaders defeated by English "sea dogs" in 1588

joint-stock company

Forerunner of the modern corporation that enabled investors to pool
financial capital for colonial and commercial ventures

Anglo-Powhatan War

Name of two wars, fought in 1614 and 1644, between the English in
Jamestown and the nearby Indian leader

slave code

The harsh system of laws governing African labor, first developed in
Barbados and later officially adopted by South Carolina in 1696

House of Burgesses

The Virginia assembly that first established local representative self-
government for English settlers in North America

indentured servants

Penniless people obligated to engage in unpaid labor for a fixed
number of years, usually in exchange for passage to the New World or
other benefits

Roman Catholics

Persecuted English religious minority for whom colonial Maryland
was intended to be a refuge

squatters

Poor farmers in North Carolina and elsewhere who occupied land
and raised crops without gaining title to soil

Florida

Spain's North American colony from which Spanish intruders
periodically threatened English settlers in Georgia and the Carolinas

tobacco

The primary staple crop of early Virginia, Maryland and North
Carolina

South Carolina

The only Southern colony with a slave majority

rice

The primary plantation crop of South Carolina

Savannah

A melting-pot town in early colonial Georgia

Powhatan

Indian leader who ruled tribes in the James River area of
Virginia

Raleigh and Gilbert

Elizabethan courtiers who failed in their attempts to
found New World colonies.

Roanoke

The failed "lost colony" founded by Sir Walter Raleigh

John Smith

Virginia leader "saved" by Pocahantas

Virginia

Colony that established a House of Burgesses in 1619

Maryland

Founded as a haven for Roman Catholics

Lord De La War

Harsh military governor of Virginia who employed "Irish
tactics" against the Indians

John Wesley

British founder of Methodist Church who served for a time as a
missionary in colonial Georgia

Lord Baltimore

The Catholic aristocrat who sought to build a sanctuary
for his fellow believers

South Carolina

Colony that turned to disease-resistant African slaves for
labor in its extensive rice plantations.

North Carolina

Economically poorer colony that was called "a vale of humility
between two mountains of conceit

Georgia

Founded as a refuge for debtors by philanthropists

James Oglethorpe

Philanthropic soldier-statesman who founded the Georgia
colony.

Elizabeth I

The unmarried ruler who permanently established English
Protestantism and fought the Catholic Spanish

Jamestown

Riverbank site where Virginia Company settlers planted
the first permanent English colony

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