________ is water contained in the open spaces, or pores, of soil and rock.
Almost everyone who lives in rural areas uses ________ for drinking and other household uses.
Groundwater flows through a series of interconnected ________ in soil and rock.
The ________ in soils are the spaces between the fragments and pieces of rock.
Rocks such as sandstone and loose deposits of sand and gravel can hold large amounts of ________.
The volume of pore space divided by the volume of a rock or soil sample is its ________.
Soil or rock with many large pores has a ________ porosity.
Soil or rock with few small pores has a ________ porosity.
The ability of rock and soil to transmit water and other fluids is called ________.
Rock that is permeable contains many well connected ________ or cracks and allows groundwater to flow through it.
Limestone is permeable when it has many interconnected ________.
Rocks, such as shale or granite, has few pores or pores that are not well connected. This type of rock is called ________ rock.
Groundwater cannot pass through ________ rock.
An ________ is a layer of permeable rock through which water flows freely.
Aquifers act as reservoirs, or ________ areas, for groundwater.
Sand, gravel, sandstone, porous limestone, and highly fractured bedrock of any type can make ________ aquifers.
Shale, mudstone, clay, or other impermeable rocks or sediments that don't contain fractures make ________ aquifers.
________ are large regions drained by a particular river system.
The upper part of an aquifer is called the zone of ________.
The lower part of an aquifer is called the zone of ________.
In the zone of ________ the pores are partially filled with water and partially filled with air.
In the zone of ________ that pores are completely filled with water.
The top surface of the zone of saturation is called the ________ ________.
During heavy rainfall the water table ________ towards Earth's surface.
During a drought, the water table ________ lower below Earth's surface.
How fast groundwater moves depends on the ________ of the rock or soil that it flows through and the groundwater's pressure.
Where permeability is high groundwater speed is ________.
Where permeability is low groundwater speed is ________.
A ________ occurs where groundwater flows out freely onto Earth's surface.
Where the water table meets Earth's surface, water seeps out for form a ________.
Where springs do not occur ________ must be dug or drilled to obtain water.
The hole, or shaft, for a water well must be drilled into the zone of ________.
Today most water wells have ________ powered pumps.
________ ________ occur where water comes out of the ground due to high pressures underground.
________ ________ occur when water flows out of a well due to high pressures underground without the water having to be pumped out.
The largest aquifer in the United States is called the ________ ________.
A ________ is a hot fountain that erupts periodically, shooting water and steam into the air.
________ is the contamination of soil, water, air, or other parts of the environment by something harmful.
________ used to melt ice and snow on roads can seep into groundwater.
________ substances from mines and industries can dissolve in rainwater or melted snow and seep into groundwater.
In cities, ________ lines can break or leak and then seep into groundwater.
Some septic systems contaminate groundwater with harmful ________.
________ and other chemicals used on cropland wash into the soil when it rains and eventually enter groundwater.
Animals wastes from ________ and farms can pollute groundwater.
Animal wastes from feedlots and ________ can pollute groundwater.
________ and other toxic chemicals oozing from underground storage tanks can poison ground water supplies.
In a ________ ________, there is a lining of plastic or concrete, or the landfill is located in clay-rich soils that trap the liquid waste.
Another source of groundwater pollution is ________ from roadways and parking lots.
It is very hard to ________ groundwater when it becomes polluted.
In many ways, it's easier to ________ groundwater pollution than it is to clean it up.
The first step in cleaning groundwater is to ________ the source of the pollution.
In 1980, Congress established a program called ________ to eliminate the worst hazardous waste sites in the United States.
________ is a process that uses living organisms to remove pollutants from groundwater.
A groundwater ________ can occur when the amount of water removed from the aquifer is greater than the amount of water flowing into the aquifer.
________ occurs when water no longer fills the pores in an aquifer and the land sinks as a result.
________ intrusion occurs when seawater seeps into the aquifer and contaminates water wells.
A ________ is an underground chamber that opens to the surface.
A cave ________ is a place where many caves are connected by passages.
________ ________ and Mammoth Cave are two very famous cave systems in the United States.
Carlsbad Caverns and ________ ________ are two very famous cave systems in the United States.
Caves form because groundwater is slightly ________.
Inside of caves ________ is formed as water drips from the ceiling of the cave and then evaporates leaving behind deposits of calcium carbonate.
cave bacon (draperies)
When water drips from the ceiling of a cave it can create long, wavy shapes called _______________________.
________ are dripstone deposits that hang down from the ceilings of caves.
________ form where mineral rich water drips to the floor and build up toward the ceiling of a cave.
________ are created where stalactites and stalagmites join together.
A ________ occurs when so much rock dissolves that the roof of a cave collapses leaving behind a huge depression in the Earth's surface.
________ also occur when so much groundwater is pumped out that the water table drops and flooded caves become dry.
________ streams occur where water flows along the surface of the Earth and then suddenly disappear below its surface.
A ________ area is one in which you can find caves, sinkholes, and disappearing streams.
________ is one of Earth's most important resources.
In picture "A" what type of karst feature do you see?
In picture "B" what cave feature is number "1" ?
In picture "B" what cave feature is number "2" ?
In picture "C" what do you see?
cave bacon (draperies)
In picture "D" what cave feature do you see above the girl?
zone of aeration
In your groundwater picture what is "Zone A" ?
zone of saturation
In your groundwater picture what is "Zone B" ?
In your groundwater picture what is the black line between "Zone A" and "Zone B" ?