Chapter 45

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for test 4

All hormones

are carried to target cells in the blood.

In a positive-feedback system where hormone A alters the amount of protein X

an increase in A always produces an increase in X.

Testosterone is an example of a chemical signal that affects the very cells that synthesize it, the neighboring cells in the testis, along with distant cells outside the gonads. Thus, testosterone is an example of

an autocrine signal, a paracrine signal, and an endocrine signal.

Which category of signal exerts its effects on target cells by binding to membrane-bound receptor proteins?

neurohormones

A paracrine signal that relaxes smooth muscle cells is

nitric oxide.

Prostaglandins are local regulators whose chemical structure is derived from

fatty acids

Ecdysone is a(n)

steroid hormone.

Aspirin and ibuprofen both

inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins.

A cell with membrane-bound proteins that selectively bind a specific hormone is called that hormone's

target cell.

The reason that the steroid hormone aldosterone affects only a small number of cells in the body is that

only its target cells contain aldosterone receptors.

Different body cells can respond differently to the same peptide hormones because

) a target cell's response is determined by the components of its signal transduction pathways.

Insect hormones and their receptors

are a focus in pest-control research.

Endocrine glands that are sources of steroid hormones

have a very short latency between steroid synthesis and steroid release.

A chemical signal operating in a paracrine manner is one that

is active at a neuronal synapse.

Hormone X activates the cAMP second messenger system in its target cells. The greatest response by a cell would come from

) applying a molecule of hormone X to the extracellular fluid surrounding the cell.

When a steroid hormone and a peptide hormone exert similar effects on a population of target cells, then

the steroid hormones affect the synthesis of effector proteins, whereas peptide hormones activate effector proteins already present in the cell.

For hormones that homeostatically regulate cellular functions,

negative feedback typically regulates hormone secretion.

Nitric oxide and epinephrine

both function as neurotransmitters.

Suppose that substance X is secreted by one cell, travels via interstitial fluid to a neighboring cell, and produces an effect on that cell. All of the following terms could describe this substance except

pheromone.

Hormones that promote homeostasis

usually operate as part of a negative feedback system

) During mammalian labor and delivery, the contraction of uterine muscles is enhanced by oxytocin. This is an example of

a hormone that is involved in a positive feedback loop.

During short-term starvation, most available fuel molecules are catabolized to provide energy for metabolism rather than being used as building blocks for growth and repair, a trade-off that is hormonally regulated by

glucagon.

Based on their effects, which pair below would not be expected to be active at the same time and place?

prostaglandin F and nitric oxide

The interrelationships between the endocrine and the nervous systems are especially apparent in

a neurosecretory cell in the hypothalamus.

The hypothalamus modulates hormone secretion by the anterior pituitary by means of

peptide hormones

Portal blood vessels connect two capillary beds found in the

hypothalamus and anterior pituitary.

If a person loses a large amount of water in a short period of time, he or she may die from dehydration. ADH can help reduce water loss through its interaction with its target cells in the

kidney

The hypothalamus

includes neurosecretory cells that terminate in the posterior pituitary.

Prolactin stimulates mammary gland growth and development in mammals and regulates salt and water balance in freshwater fish. Many scientists think that this wide range of functions indicates that prolactin

is an evolutionarily conserved hormone.

A product of the anterior pituitary gland that causes color changes in its target cells is

MSH.

To prevent insect pests from maturing into reproducing adults, pest controllers use synthetic agonists of

juvenile hormone.

In a lactating mammal, the two hormones that promote milk synthesis and milk release, respectively, are

prolactin and oxytocin.

Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone are synthesized in the

hypothalamus.

Endocrine structures derived from nervous tissue include the

posterior pituitary gland and the adrenal medulla.

Iodine is added to table salt to help prevent deficiencies of an essential mineral needed for the proper function of the

thyroid glands.

A tropic hormone from the anterior pituitary gland regulates the secretion of

thyroxine.

Which endocrine disorder is correctly matched with the malfunctioning gland?

diabetes insipidus and the posterior pituitary gland

One reason a person might be severely overweight is due to

an undersecretion of thyroxine.

Fight-or-flight reactions include activation of

the adrenal medulla, leading to increased secretion of epinephrine

The endocrine glands include the

parathyroid glands.

The body's reaction to PTH (parathyroid hormone), a reduction in plasma levels of calcium, can be opposed by

calcitonin.

Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine activity?

the pancreas

Linkage to membrane-bound receptor proteins on target cells activates the typical actions of the

pancreatic hormones.

Analysis of a blood sample from a fasting individual who had not eaten for 24 hours would be expected to reveal high levels of

glucagon.

When the beta cells of the pancreas release insulin into the blood,

the skeletal muscles and the adipose cells take up glucose at a faster rate.

A chemical signal that has both endocrine and neural roles is

epinephrine.

The amino acid tyrosine is a starting substrate for the synthesis of

epinephrine.

The autonomic nervous system includes an endocrine gland known as the

adrenal medulla

A disease that destroys the adrenal cortex should lead to an increase in the plasma levels of

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

During a stressful interval

ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex, and neurons of the sympathetic nervous system stimulate the adrenal medulla.

In response to stress, the adrenal gland promotes the synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate substrates via the action of the steroid hormone

cortisol.

Melatonin is secreted by

the pineal gland during the night.

Winter hibernation and spring reproduction in bears are cued by seasonal changes in the secretion of

melatonin from the pineal gland.

The steroid hormone that coordinates molting in arthropods is

ecdysone.

After eating a carbohydrate-rich meal, the mammalian pancreas increases its secretion of

insulin.

The higher level of metabolic activity typical of nonhibernating temperate mammals during the winter months is due to increased secretion of

thyroxine.

The increased contraction of the human uterus during labor and delivery is at least partially due to the actions of

oxytocin.

Abnormally reduced somatic growth (dwarfism) can be a consequence of decreased hormone secretion from the

anterior pituitary gland.

DES is called an "endocrine disrupting chemical" because it structurally resembles, and interferes with, the endocrine secretions of the
A) pancreatic islet cells.

ovaries.

Testosterone is an example of

an androgen.

Estradiol is an example of

an estrogen

Epinephrine is an example of

a catecholamine.

In an experiment, rats' ovaries were removed immediately after impregnation and then the rats were divided into two groups. Treatments and results are summarized in the table. The results most likely occurred because progesterone exerts an effect on the

metabolism of the uterus.

A fantasy movie features a caterpillar that never matures into an adult, but simply gets larger and larger with each molt. It might be possible that the caterpillar did not mature into an adult because of

an increased level of juvenile hormone.

Which of the following is not an accurate statement?

Hormones of the same chemical class usually have the same function.

An example of antagonistic hormones controlling homeostasis is

insulin and glucagon in glucose metabolism.

Growth factors are local regulators that

bind to cell-surface receptors and stimulate growth and development of target cells.

Which hormone is incorrectly paired with its action?

insulin stimulates glycogen breakdown in the liver

Steroid and peptide hormones typically have in common

their requirement for travel through the bloodstream.

Which of the following is the most likely explanation for hypothyroidism in a patient whose iodine level is normal?

hyposecretion of TSH

Shortly after ingesting a big plate of carbohydrate-rich pasta, you measure your blood's hormone levels. What results would you expect, compared to before the meal?

high insulin, low glucagon

The relationship between the insect hormones ecdysteroid and PTTH is an example of

an interaction of the endocrine and nervous systems.

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