Choose the word that is misspelled:
Negligence (gence - not gance)
Forest:Trees (a forest is made up of many trees)
Bouquet: Flowers (A bouquet is made up of many flowers)
Which word is misspelled?
The girl was upset when she asked to meet with the principal of the school. (it is principle of the school).
chemicals that contain carbon, that support life, includes proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids
main class of biological molecules, composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, including sugars and starches
What do carbohydrates provide?
Short term energy for metabolism and glucose, structural support for cells and organisms, cellulose in cell wall of plants (most abundant molecule on earth)
Lipids (fats and oils)
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, less oxygen than carbohydrates, store more energy than carbohydrates - long term energy.
How do carbohydrates and lipids work together?
If you take in more carbohydrates than necessary, body stores them as fatty acids, they are re-synthesized as lipids called triglycerides and led to high cholesterol.
provide cells with the ability to carry out functions: chemical messangers, transport substances movement, immune defense,
act as catalysts for all biochemical reactions, increase reaction rates by lowering activation energy
takes glucose, a sugar molecule with 6 carbon atoms and breaks it down to 2 pyruvate molecules, each with 3 carbon atoms to make NADH then make ATP through the electron transport chain.
Insidious is the opposite of (insidious describes something that spreads harmfully in a subtle of stealthy manner)
(Something ominous predicts or foreshadows disaster. Something auspicious foreshadowed success).
When liquid like blood coagulates, it forms a clot, When a liquid freezes, it forms ice.
Something impeccable is perfect, without flaw
absurd means without sense
Guzzle:Drink (To guzzle is to drink quickly, so the relationship is of speed or degree):
Orator:Articulate::(a successful orator - public speaker is one who is articulate - speaks well)
Which of the following demonstrates the commutative property of addition?
The commutative property of addition - when adding two or more terms, the sum is the same, no matter the order in which the terms are added.
Edward has $400 more than Robert. After Edward spends $60 on groceries, he has 3 times more money than Robert. How much money does Robert have?
Edward has 400 more than Robert: x+400
Edward spends $60 on groceries: x+400-60
Edward has 3 times more than Robert:x+400-60=3x
Renee marks down all of her merchandise. She sells 33 winter coats at 30% off. How many winter coats were in stock before the sale?
33 winter coats = 0.30x
33/0.30=110 winter coats
There is a recessive allele for a gene that made people more susceptible than normal to smallpox. Only homoxygous recessive people display this trait. Heterozygotes are indistinguishable from homozygous dominant people, with normal resistance to smallpox. After smallpox was eliminated, what happened to the allele frequency for the allele that caused smallpox susceptibility?
The allele remained at a constant frequency in the gene pool.
A black male mouse (I) is crossed with a black female mouse, and they produce 20 offspring; 15 black and 5 white. A different black male mouse (II) is crossed with the same female, and the offspring from this mating are 30 black mice. Which of the following must be true?
Male mouse II is heterozyzous
Which of the following is found in all forms of life?
I. Genetic material
Genetic material, Protein, and Water
Albinos have a genotype of aa, while all other members of the population are either AA or Aa. the offspring of a cross between a heteroxygous male and an albino female would be:
50% normal pigmentation, 50% albino
Meosis differs from mitosis in that:
two cell divisions take place and haploid cells are produced from diploid cells
All organisms utilize:
A triplet genetic code to produce proteins
ADP as cellular energy
A triplet genetic code to produce proteins
Sexually reproducing species can have a selective advantage over asexually reproducing species because sexual reproduction:
Allows for more genetic diversity
The genes encoding for eukaryotic protein sequences are passed from one generation to the next via:
To test whether a tall plant (in which the allele that determines tallness is dominant and the allele that determines shortness is recessive) is homozygous or heterozygous, you could:
Cross it with a tall plant that had a short parent or cross it with a short plant.
Which of the following associations of brain structure and function is false?
Cerebral cortex: Higher intellectual function
Medulla: Basic emotional Drive
Medulla: Basic emotional drives (false)
Which of the following is not a characteristic of fermentation:
It is anaerobic
It requires glucose
It produces energy
It requires oxygen
It requires oxygen
Which order of classificatory divisions is correct:
Phylum, class, order, genus
King Phillip came over for great spaghetti
Tall is dominant over short in a certain plant. A tall plant was crossed with a short plant, and both tall and short offspring were produced. This demonstrates:
The law of segregation
Living in a close relationship with another organism in which one organism benefits while the other is neither harmed nor benefited is:
Which of the following is a correct association:
Golgi apparatus: Modificatin and glycosylation of proteins
Which statement about the plasma membrane is false:
It serves as a selectively permeable barrier to the external environment.
It serves as a mediator between external and internal environments.
In eukaryotes, it contains the cytochrome, chain of oxidative phosphorylation.
It contains phospholipids as a structural component.
False: In eukaryotes, it contains cytochrome, chain of oxidative phosphorylation. (this is located in the mitochondria)
Straight tail (T) is dominant over bent tail (t) in mice, and long-tailed mice (L) are dominant over short-tailed mice (l). Which cross must produce all short, long-tailed mice?
TtLl X TTLL
Red is dominant over white in a certain flower. To test whether a red offspring is homozygous or heterozygous int his flower, one would:
Cross it with a red plant that had a white parent.
Cross it with a red plant that had two red parents.
Cross it with a white plant.
Two of the above would work.
Two of the above would work.
In humans, brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes. In the cross of BB x bb, what percentage of the offspring will have brown eyes?
Which of the following is not an organelle?
Which is NOT a characteristic of proteins:
They contain genetic information
They can act as hormones
They can catalyze chemical reactions
They act in cell membrane trafficking
They contain genetic information
Which part of cellular respiration directly produces a pH gradient during the oxidative metabolism of glucose?
Electron transport chain
All of the following underline the kinetic molecular theory of gases EXCEPT:
Gas molecules have no intermolecular forces
Gas particles are in random motion
Gas particles have a negigible volume
The average kinetic energy is proportional to the termperature (degrees Celcius) of the gas)
The average kinetic energy is proportional to the termperature of the gas (in Kelvin not Celcius)
Which of the following is the best example of heat transferring from one source to another:
Taking a hot bath
Which of the following is the best example of potential energy changing to kinetic energy:
Pushing off a rocking chair
The number of electrons revolving around the nucleus of an atom in an unionized state is equal to the number of positively charged protons within the nucleus. Which of the following elements would be considered an isotope?
7 protons + 6 neutrons
Which of the following is true about compounds?
Compounds are pure substances that are composed of two or more elements in a fixed proportion; Compounds can be broken down chemically to produce their constiuent elements or other compounds
Which of the following compounds includes all others on the list:
As you move from left to right across a period (horizontal row) in the periodic table:
The number of electrons is one more than the previous element
Evaporation can best be described as:
the process in which molecules may have enough energy to leave the liquid phase and escape into the gaseous phase.
If the half-life of a certain isotope is 5 years, what fraction of a sample of that isotope will remain after 15 years?
Which of the following represents 1 amu?
a. 1.66 x 10 -24 g
b. 1.66 x 10 -24 kg
c. Neither a or b are correct
d. Both a and b are correct
d. both a and b are correct
Speed is different from velocity because:
Speed is a scalar quantity, and velocity is a vector quantity
Velocity involves speed and direction
Speed only expresses a magnitude
All of the above are correct
All of the above are correct
While attempting to push a heavy box across the floor:
The amount of force required to start the box sliding is more than that required to keep it sliding.
Pushing on the box without moving it results in no work being done.
The coefficient of static friction is dependent on the nature of the surface the box is resting on.
All of the above.
All of the above.
A vehicle travels at a constant speed on the highway. It can be said that:
Its acceleration rate is zero.
The net forces acting on the vehicle are zero.
The force applied by the vehicle's drive wheels is equal and opposite to the forces that act to slow the vehicle.
All of the above are correct.
All of the above are correct.
All of the following statements about force are true EXCEPT:
Force is a scalar quantity
Force is a push or pull.
Greater force results in greater acceleration.
Smaller masses require less force to achieve the same acceleration.
Force is a scalar quantitiy (false)
Enunciate (pronoune more clearly):Pronounce
(Elaborate - discuss something in depth)
A basic truth or law. I have always run my business based on the principle that honesty is always the best policy.
the energy released when an electron is added to a gaseous atom. Represents the ease with which an atom can accept an electron.
an acid as a species that produces H+ in an aqueous solution, and a base as a species that produces OH- in aqueous solution
The elements in the periodic table may be classified into three categories
Metals, nonmetals and metalloids
a wave that vibrates in a direction that is perpendicular to the direction of motion of the wave
a wave that vibrates in a direction that is parallel to the direction of motion of the wave
The kinetic molecular theory: Gases are made up of particles whose volumes are
negligible compared to the container volume
The kinetic molecular theory: Gas atoms or molecules exhibit no
intermolecular attractions or repulsions
The kinetic molecular theory: Gas particles are
in continuous, random motion, undergoing collisions with other particles and with the container walls.
The kinetic molecular theory:Collisions between any two gas particles are
elastic (no energy is dissipated or equivalently, that kinetic energy is conserved)
The kinetic molecular theory: The average kinetic energy of gas particles is proportional to
the absolute temperature of the gas, and the same for all gases at a given temperature.
What are Newton's Three Laws of Motion?
Law of action and reaction, Law of inertia, Force equals mass time acceleration
What is NOT part of the central dogma?
structure of DNA discovered in 1953 by Watson and Crock and it became clear how DNA could play a role in genetic material
The central dogma of molecular biology was first articulated by Francis Crick in
the process of producing proteins is irreversible: a protein cannot be used to create DNA. Dogma deals with transcription, translation, and DNA replication to produces new genomes
sites of aerobic respiration within the cell and important suppliers of energy (ATP) Powerhouse of the cell
The air passages involved in respiration consist of:
the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.
The law of segregation states:
if there are two alleles in an individual that determine a trait, these two alleles will separate during gamete formation and act independently
a group of organisms that is able to successfully interbreed with each other and not other organisms
Cell membrane (plasma membrane)
encloses the cell, regulates the passage of materials into and out of the cell.
Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotes because they contain
organelles, membrane-bound structures that carry out specific functions for the cell. Organelles include the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosomes, vacoules, mitochondria, etc.
is covered by the cell wall. Cell membrane is a semi-permanent substance so substances can pass through it, also known as plasma membrane or plasma lemma.
Small circular independently replicating piece of DNA can transfer to another cell (in bacteria, it is extra)
the nuclear envelope has PORES on its surface to allow larges molecules such as mRNA to enter.
N-N, 2N-2N, Eukaryotic Cells, Identical #, Haploid-Haploid, Diploid-Diploid, Can create replication errors, type of mutation and cancer results
Prostate gland and seminal vesicles
during ejaculation, add secretions to the sperm that carry and provide nutrients for the sperm as part of semen
Testosterone and other steroid hormones called androgens
responsible for secondary sexual characteristics of the male, such as facial and pubic hair, change in body shape, and deepening voice change
in testes, cells divide to create spermatocytes, which undergo meiosis (sexual div - identical # produced) to form 4 haploid spermatids.
Women are born with all the eggs they will have have while males
produce fresh sperm daily. (genetic anomalies are more common in eggs of older women).
During development of female children, ova progress to the meiotic prophase I, in meiotic cell division and are stuck at this 1st stage.
Except for the ova that mature during each menstraul cycle, the ova remain arrested.
At birth, all the eggs a female will ovulate during her lifetime are already present in the ovaries, but
these eggs develop and ovulate at the rate of one every 28 days starting at puberty
Like male sex hormone, the female sex hormones (estrogen) regulate the secondary sexual characteristics of the female including:
development of mammary (milk) glands and wider hip bones (pelvis). They also play a role in development of menstrual cycle
reproduction by vertebrates in water; eggs are laid in water and sperm are deposited near them
a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area and interbreed
Variation in genotypes and phenotypes
each individual receives its specific sets of alleles from the gene pool, and not every individual receives the same alleles
group of organisms that is able to successfully interbreed with each other to produce fertile offspring and not with other organisms
in biological species, in inability to interbreed and create fertile offspring (dogs only breed with other dogs, etc)
Spermatogenesis is characterized by:
production of four mature sperm; each sperm has an X or Y chromosome; the process is continuous; Fresh sperm are created daily
Oogeneisis is characterized by:
production of one egg and two to three polar bodies; only ova with X chromosomes produced; the process is discontinuos; ova are produced that donate mitochondria to embroyos; a limited supply of ova is produced early in life and the development of ova is arrested later in life
Arteries functions and characteristics:
thick walled; oxygenated; conduct blood at high pressures; have a pulse; no valves to prevent backflow
thin walled; deoxygenated; conduct blood at low pressures; no pulse; have valves to prevent backflow
Sympathetic nervous system
associated with fight or flight response; increases heart rate; increases breathing rate; lowers digestive rate; causes pupil dilation
Parasympahtetic nervous system
associated with rest-and-digest response; lowers heart rate; no affect on breathing rate; increases digestive rate; doesn't cause pupil dilation
respond to low-intensity illumination (important in night vision), but do not detect color well
when two traits are blended together; both are partially expressed, and neither dominates
The population in a community interact with each other in a variety of ways, including
predation, competition, or symbiosis
a competitive relationship usually exists in a population when there are limited resources
live together in an intimate, often permanent, association that may or may not be beneficial to them
Write the taxonomic classifications in order
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Subphylum, Class, Order, Family Genus, Species (Does King Phillip Sometimes Come Over for great Spaghetti?)
If one parent is homozygous dominant and the other is homoxygous recessive, which of the following might reappear in an F2 generation, but not in an F1 generation?
In fruit flies, the gene for wing type is located on an autosomal chromosome. The allele for wild-type wings is dominant over the allele for vestigal wings, If a homoxygous dominant male fly is crossed with a female with vestigal wings, that percentage of their female progeny are expected to have wild-type wings?
The process by which plants convert carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen is called
Function of the hormone oxytocin
increases uterine contractions during childbirth. released by posterior pituitary
Color blindness is a sex-linked recessive trait found on the X chromosome. Colorblindness in a male population is 1 in 20. Predicted incidence of color blindness of color blindness among females in same population?
1/20X1/20 = 1/400
If 2 brown-eyed parents have a blue-eyed child, the probability that their next child will have blue eyes is
1 in 4
(if one of their children had blue eyes, both parents carry the recessive blue eyed gene, so the chances are 1 in 4 bb)
Marsupial mammals differ from placental mammals in that
Marsupials bear premature embryos that complete development in their mother's pouches
Which statement regarding protein synthesis is false?
tRNA molecules help incorporate the correct amino acids into proteins.
Proteins are formed on the ribosomes.
mRNA is not necessary for proper protein synthesis.
Ribosomal RNA is needed for proper binding of the mRNA message.
This is False: mRNA is not necessary for proper protein synthesis - protein synthesis does require mRNA.
A typical human gamete:
contains a haploid number of genes; will always contain an X or Y chromosome; has undergone genetic recombinations
In humans, red blood cells:
have no nucleus (red blood cells are made in the bone marrow, they lose their nuclei to make room for hemoglobin, so they cannot reproduce or repair themselves)
What best describes tRNA?
Binds specific amino acids and carries them to the ribosomes during protein synthesis (taxi)
Which statement about human gamete production is false?
In the testes, sperm develop in the seminiferous tubules.
In the ovaries, eggs develop in the ovarian follicles.
FSH stimulates gamete production in both sexes.
The result of meiosis in females is the production of 4 egg cells from each diploid precursor cell.
The production of 4 eggs is false - Oogenesis produces only one viable egg and two or three polar bodies.
If a diabetic accidentally overdosed on insulin, which of the following would be likely to occur?
Increased conversion of glucose to glycogen.
Spermatogenesis and oogenesis differ in that:
Meiosis proceeds continually without pausing in spermatogenesis and oogenseis involves a meiotic pause. Spermatogenesis produces 4 haploid sperm cells from each diploid precursor cell, while oogenesis produces one egg cell and two or more polar bodies.
An individual that has only one X chromosome is genotypically XO. This person
Will be phenotypically female but sterile (turner's female) underdeveloped ovaries, may be shorter with mental development problems)
In an emergency, a person with type AB antigen in his red blood cells may receive a transfusion of:
Type O, A or B (Type AB is a Universal acceptor)
The gene for color blindness is X-linked. If normal parents have a color blind son, what is the probability that he inherited the gene for color blindness from his mother?
100% (the mother has two X chromosomes, one from her mother and one from her father and the father only has one X chromosome from his father, so his mother MUST be the carrier)
The sun's core consists primarily of 1H and 4He, as well as various other trace elements and isotopes. Which of the following statements is not true regarding the fusion reaction that occurs within the core?
Electrons are released as a product of the fusion reaction.
The mass of the products is less than the mass of the reactants in the balanced fusion equation.
Six photons are emitted as a product of the fusion reaction.
Four hydrogen atoms combine to form a single helium atom.
Not true - Electrons are released as a product of the fusion reaction (the core of the sun is so hot, the electrons are stripped away)
energy released when an electron is added to a gaseous solution and represents the ease with which an atom can accept an electron
The Doppler effect
As an ambulance passes, its pitch seems to change. This perception is best explained by:
All of the following statements about weight are true except:
Weight increases closer to Earth's surface.
Weight is not dependent on mass.
Weight is greater on planet's with greater mass.
Weight varies from location to location.
Weight is not dependent on mass (not true) - Weight is dependent on mass and acceleration due to gravity.
One pound of force is applied to move an object a distance of one foot. The amount of work that has been done is?
1 foot-pound (W=FXD) W=1X1=1
All of the following statements about energy are true except:
Energy cannot be created
The amount of energy in the universe is slowly diminishing.
Energy cannot be destroyed.
Energy can be converted from one form to another.
False: energy in the universe is not diminishing. The principle of conversation of energy says that the amount of energy in the universe is constant.
A boulder that begins to roll down a hill is an example of an energy conversion from:
Potential to kinetic
A policeman fires a handgun during target practice. His weapon recoils slightly as he fires because:
For every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction. (Newton's Third Law of Motion)
of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound. For example, the chemical compound n-hexane has the structural formula CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3, which shows that it has 6 carbon atoms arranged in a chain, and 14 hydrogen atoms
The initial reaction of the Krebs cycle involves the addition of a
2-carbon molecule to a 4-carbon molecule.
Aerobic respiration is divided into two processes
the Krebs cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain, which produces ATP
pyruvate molecules are processed through
the Kreb Cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle (TCA cycle)
The Krebs cycle
the first of two stages of a process called cellular respiration, in which glucose is transformed into a usable form of chemical energy called adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. begins with the raw materials glucose and oxygen and yields carbon dioxide and water (both waste products) and free energy, some of which is captured and stored in usable form as ATP.
located in the upper right-hand portion of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm and on top of the stomach, right kidney, and intestines
functions of the liver?
production of bile, which helps carry away waste and break down fats in the small intestine during digestion; production of certain proteins for blood plasma; production of cholesterol and special proteins to help carry fats through the body; conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage (This glycogen can later be converted back to glucose for energy.); regulation of blood levels of amino acids, processing of hemoglobin for use of its iron content (The liver stores iron.); conversion of poisonous ammonia to urea (Urea is one of the end products of protein metabolism that is excreted in the urine.); clearing the blood of drugs and other poisonous substances; regulating blood clotting; resisting infections by producing immune factors and removing bacteria from the bloodstream
hormones produced by the thyroid gland primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism
act on nearly every cell in the body. increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis, help regulate long bone growth; essential to proper development ; regulate protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism
a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory.
Single displacement reactions are reactions where one reactant replaces part of the other.
AB + C → AC + B
Double displacement reactions are reactions where part of one reactant is replaced by part of another reactant.
AB + CD → AD + CB
lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system
After absorbing energy, an electron may jump from the ground state
to a higher energy excited state.
(adj.) Tending to cause sleep, relating to sleepiness or lethargy; (n.) something that induces sleep
When an electric current is passed through water, two gases can be collected. This shows water is not an
Radioactive isotopes are frequently used in medicine. What kind of half-life would a medical isotope probably have?
When a car is driven for a long time, the pressure of air in the tires increases. This is best explained by which gas law?
Gay-Lussac's Law (temp and pressure are directly proportional)
When an acid is added to a base, water and a salt form. What kinds of bonds form in these two compounds?
polar covalent and ionic
If bacteria are placed in a strong solution of salt water, they will shrink as water moves out of the bacteria. This happens through the process of:
In which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes move to opposite ends of the reproducing cell?
How does an enzyme work on a chemical reaction that occurs in a substrate?
an enzyme speeds up chemical reactions
In plants, chlorophyll masks other pigments present in leaves. Chlorophyll is important to animals because
it is the pigment that traps the energy in light plants use to make sugars.
Muscle contractions that normally move food along the human digestive system are known as:
Cholesterol is a fat normally found in humans. Excess cholesterol in the blood is often the cause of:
What structures in the small intestine increase this organ's surface area allowing increased absorption of digested nutrients:
Bacteria and fungi are organisms that are most responsible for food spoilage. Many foods are kept cool to prevent the growth of these organisms. Food with high salt content don't have to be refrigerated. What natural process prevents these foods from spoiling?
A layer of light-sensitive cells called what make up one of the layers of the retina?
cones and rods
When antifreeze is added to water in a car's radiator:
The boiling point of the solution will increase
Which of the following is NOT paired with its unit of measure?
voltage is measured in volts.
One light in a set of decorative lights burns out; all the other lights in the string also go dark. The reason is:
the lights are connected in a series circuit.
What is the voltage needed to deliver 2.5 amperes to a device with a resistance of 5 ohms?
Ohms law states that voltage is equal to current times resistance. V=I X R V=2.5X5=12.5
If a standard 110-volt appliance draws 8 amperes, how much power does it use?
Power is measured in watts. 110 x 8 = 880 watts
A force os 15,000 N is applied to an object for one minute. What is the implies directed on the object?
N is Newton seconds. Impulse = 15,000 N X 60 seconds = 900,000 N s.
How many milligrams are in 34 grams?
There are 1,000 milligrams in a gram, so 34X1,000=34,000 milligrams
7 subscript 12 divided by 7 subscript 3 =
7 subscript 9 (for division if bases are the same, subtract exponents)
If a right triangle has a base of 60 feet and a height of 80 feet, what is the length of the hypotenuse?
Which of the following has the greatest value?
I-11I (the absolute value of this is 11 )
A package of 10 pencils is divided between every 2 students in class. If there are 2o students in class, how many pencils are needed?
10 pencils are divided between 2 students, so each student gets 5 pencils. So 5 pencils or every student and you have 20 students is 5 X20 = 100 pencils
Use the bowtie method to find the difference. (5X5)-(2X9) on top and (9X5) on bottom. (25)-(10) =7 (45) Answer = 7/45
Maddy divided her circular cake in 10 equal slices. She ate 3 slices. What is the degree of measure of the central angle encompassing Maddy's 3 slices of cake?
Maddy eats 3/10 of the cake which is a total of 360 degrees. 3/10 X360 = 108
What is the sum of the prime factors of 144?
14. The prime factors of 144 are 2,2,2,2,3 and 3. Adding these numbers give you a sum of 14.
6checkmark108 (prime factors of 108 are 2,2,3,3, and 3, so the pair os 2/s and the pair of 3's can come outside of the square root sign, with only the 3 remaining.
Which of the following is NOT a prime number?
1, 2, 3 or 4?
4 (b/c it is divisible by other numbers)
When a substance undergoes a phase change from a gas to liquid, this process is called:
when a substance undergoes a phase change from a gas to solid with no apparent liquid phase in between
B,Si,As,Te,At, and Sb form a staircase pattern on the right side of the periodic table. They are classified as:
Which of the following is NOT an allotrope of carbon (allotrope is different form of same element):
Flourine is NOT an allotrope of carbon. It is its own element.
Which of the following factors would NOT affect rates of reaction?
56 Kg of a radioactive substance has a half-life of 12 days. How many days will it take the substance to naturally decay to only 7 kg?
For a substance to decay from 56 kg to 7 kg, it undergoes 3 half-lives. 56 to 28 to 14 to 7. SInce the half-live is 12 days and 12 X 3 = 36. The answer is 36 days.
After fertilization, the sperm and egg become a zygote, which then begins a number of cell divisions called
Which of the following is NOT a step in the process of mitosis?
In pea plants, shortness is recessive and tallness is dominant. If 100 percent of the F2 generation of pea plants are tall, then the F1 generation could have been.
TT x tt
What glad listed below is not paired up with a hormone it produces?
posterior pituitary not matched correctly, it produces oxytocin and vasopressin.
Cortisol controls rate of metabolism for fasts, proteins and carbohydrates.
Which answer choice below is NOT part of the human skeletal system?
Which of the following is NOT part of the male reproductive system?
oviduct (this is female reproductive system)
An object moves 320 m in 20 s. What is the speed of the object over this time?
Speed = Distance/Time = 320/20 = 16m/s
An object has a CONSTANT velocity of 20 m/s and travels for 20 s. What is the acceleration of the object.
0 m/s (squared). An object with a constant velocity doesn't experience any acceleration b/c there is no change in velocity.
Newton's Third Law
When one object applies a force to a second object, that second object applied an opposite and equal force to the first object.
Newton's First Law of Motion
Intertia - An object in motion will stay in motion, and an object at rest will stay at rest, unless acted upon by force
If a desk measures 56 inches in length, how many centimeters is that?
1 inch = 2.5 centimeters. Multiply 56 x 2.5 = 140
2 6/7 divided by 3/4
Convert the mixed number into an improper fraction. 7 x 2 + 6 = 20 for the first fraction. So, it's 20/7 X 4/3 = 80/21
Which of the following expressions is the mathematical equivalent of 128 x 129?
12 to the 17th (b/c 12 to the 8th and 12 to the 9th = 12 to the 17th)
What is the sum of the prime factors of 36?
10 (prime factors of 36 are 2, 2, 3 and 3. Add them and get 10)
If you get a list of fractions and are asked which list is in order from smallest to greatest.
Convert each fraction into a decimal.
What is the area of a triangle with a base of 16 inches and a height of 5 inches?
1/2 X 16 X 5 = 40 square inches
(for a triangle - you have to put the 1/2 in front)
A rectangle has a length of 37 meters and a width of 17 meters. What is the area?
37 x 17 = 629 square meters
Convert the integer and mixed number into improper fractions. 17 becomes 17/1 and 15 7/12 becomes 187/12. You can bow tie 17/1 and 187/12 to equal 204-187/12 which becomes 17/12, so the answer is 17/12.
Which word in this sentence is the adjective? He quickly works his way through the house until he completes every task.
Which two words are adjectives? The patient requested to be moved to a room with a larger window so he could see the outside world.
Which words are prepositions? She walked around the hospital grounds looking for her father.
branch of mechanics dealing with motion, how things move, how fast they move, how long it takes them to move.
After the volunteers had left for the evening, the head nurse took an inventory of medical supplies. (What noun in the sentence is the subject)
Please understand that the primary reason this hospital has visiting hour restrictions is for the safety of it's patients. (What is the subject?)
You. This sentence has an implied subject, which is you.
It was a thorough examination that led the doctor to recommend Mr. Matthews undergo surgery. (What noun is the subject?)
Which two words are adjectives? The lobby on the second floor has a broken light that needs to be replaced.
Which two words are adverbs? The maintenance crew arrived shortly before 9 a.m. and worked quickly.
The word flu is an example of what
homophone (for flew - pronounced the same but spelled differently)
An object moves 320 m in 20 s. What is the speed of the object over time?
S = D/T 320/20 = 16 m/s
Answer is 16m/s
Chemical digestion begins in the mouth, where salivary glands produce
saliva, which lubricates food and begins starch digestion.
Salivary amylase (ptyalin)
an enzyme in saliva that breaks the complex starch polysaccharide into maltose (a disaccharide)
through ingestion and digestion, organisms make nutrients available to cells through absorption. These nutrients are transported through the body to be used.
the heartbeat a doctor hears through a stethoscope is the sound of the chambers of the heart contracting in a regular pattern called the cardiac cycle
heart is composed of these specialized muscle tissue, they are connected together in an electrical network that transmits nervous impulses throughout the muscle to stimulate contraction
thin-walled, conduct at a low pressure, contain many valves to prevent back flow, have no pulse.
thin-walled vessels that are very small in diameter; red blood cells must pass through them in single file.
the foundation for the lymphatic system that carries extracellular fluid at a very low pressure, without cells.
responsible for filtering lymph to rid it of foreign particles, maintaining the proper glance of fluids in tissues of the body, and transporting chylomicrons as part of fat metabolism.
Red blood cells are the most
abundant cells present in blood & their primary function is to transport oxygen
the oxygen-carrying component of red blood cells is this protein; delivers oxygen in response to changes in tissue
cause the body's immune system to assault its own tissue as if it were a foreign invader
Passive immune defenses are barriers to entry:
skin, lining of lungs, mouth, stomach. Skin is the most effective barrier to pathogens.
cellular part of the immune system, white blood cells. Phagocytes (engulf bacteria) and Lymphocytes - B and T cells.
B cells (active immunity)
produce antibodies or immunoglobins, secreted proteins to fight foreign molecules (non-self)
T cells (active immunity)
Helper T cells coordinate immune responses, while killer T cells directly attack and dispose of cells that are infected with pathogens, such as viruses or malignant cells.
designed to move air between the exterior atmosphere and an interior space that is in close contact with the capillaries.
breathing rate is controlled by, part of the brain that monitors carbon dioxide content in the blood
The air passages involved in respiration include:
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and the alveoli
adds moisture and warmth to inhaled air and helps to filter it, removing particles and organisms before the air passes to the next air passage.
involved in diverting ingested material into the esophagus and away from the lungs to prevent choking
contains a membrane that vibrates in a controlled manner with the passage of air to create the voice
carries air through the vulnerable throat protected by flexible but strong rings of cartilage.
epidermal cells that synthesize the pigment melanin, which protects the body from ultraviolet light
principle organs of exception in humans, form urine to remove nitrogenous wastes and regulate the volume and salt content of extracellular fluids.
From the kidney, urine passes into a
ureter tube through the bladder where it is stored until it passes through the urethra. (kidney - ureter tube - bladder - urethra)
Nervous system and endocrine system
two communication systems that coordinate the activities of different tissues and organs
chemical messengers produced in one tissue and carried by the blood to act on other parts of the body.
such as the pancreas or adrenal cortex can be targets of the autonomic nervous system
Hormones are secreted by a variety of tissues, including the:
hyphothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, testes, ovaries, pineal, kindneys, heart and thymus.
section of the posterior forebrain, located above the pituitary glad. Connects nervous system with the endocrine system.
Anterior pituitary gland (in brain) secretes many hormones:
growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), Prolactin, Follicle-stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone
Posterior pituitary gland (in brain)
direct extension of nervous tissue from hypothalamus. Nerve signals cause hormone release. Secretes two hormones: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin and oxytocin.
small pea-like organs that regulate calcium and phosphate balance in blood, bones, and other tissues
exocrine secretes hormones into small intestine; endocrine secretes hormones into bloodstream; Insulin stimulates muscles to remove glucose from the blood when glucose levels are high (like after a meal); Islets of Langerhans secrete glucagon that respond to low levels of blood glucose
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
In response to stress, ACTH secretes steroid hormones called cortiocosteriods
male sex hormones (secreted by the adrenal cortex) in both females and males, In males produced in testes.
increases the conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscle tissue, causing a rise in blood glucose levels and an increase in the basal metabolic rate.
enables organs to receive and respond to stimuli from external and internal environments
specialized cells designed to transmit information in the form of electrochemical signals called action potentials.
When a neuron reaches a target cell, the axon ends in a synaptic terminal, with a gap called the
synapse between the neuron and the target cell.
In the nervous system, membrane potential in converted to chemical signal, or neurotransmitter, that is released across a small gap between the neuron and target cell. The gap is celled a
Central nervous system (processes and stores information)
made up of brain enclosed within the cranium and a spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous system
carry signals to effector organs such as muscles and glands to take actions in response to nervous impulses
Autonomic Nervous System
regulates involuntary functions of the body, heart and blood vessels, reparation, muscles of eye, etc.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
deactivates or shows down activities of muscles and glands (rest-and-digest response); slowing down of heart rates, pupillary constriction
Medulla oblongata (brain)
controls vital functions like breathing, heart rate, and detection of carbon dioxide
Regular activating system (brain)
network of neurons that processes signs to alter the activity levels of alertness and attention
part of the CNS. routs for axons to travel out of brain, center for reflex actions like knee-jerk reflex
framework for attachment of skeletal muscles, permitting moment, when muscle contracts by bringing two bones together. Also provides protection for vital organs
firm, flexible, principle component of embryonic skeletons, takes longer to heal than bone
makes of most of the skeleton in mature higher vertebrates, including humans; made up of calcium, phosphates salts and collagen
the site where the formation of blood cells takes place, a hollow cavity within each long bone is filled with this
walls of arteries and veins, bladder and utereus, contract in response to action potentials
voluntary muscle, intentional physical movements, contain large multinucleate fiber containing light and dark bands called striations
tissue that make up the heart, characteristics of both skeletal and smooth muscle; has an internal pace maker responsible for heart beat that is modified by the nervous system
asexual stage of a plant's life cycle, diploid nuclei divide meiotically to form haploid spores and the spores produce the haploid generation
male gametophyes (pollen grains)
develop from the spores made by the sporophyte, pollen grains are transferred from the anther to the stigma
have two copies of each chromosomes, so two copies of each gene (except for the X and Y chromosomes in males)
Types of alleles include dominant and recessive alleles. A dominant allele is expressed:
in an organism regardless of the second allele in the organism.
A recessive allele:
will not be expressed if the other allele an organism carries is a dominant one.
Law of segregation
if there are two alleles in an individual that determines a trait, these two alleles will separate during allele formation and act independently
The Law of Independent Assortment
describes the relationship between genes. If the gene that determines plant height is on a different chromosome than the gene for flower color, than these traits will act independently during test crosses
phenomenon which alleles fail to assort independently because they are on the same chromosome
family tree depicting inheritance of a particular genetic trait over several generations (recessive disorders, sex-linked disorders)
blending of the effects of contacting alleles, both alleles are expressed partially, neither dominating the other, When a red (RR) and white flower (WW)are crossed, pink (RW) is created
both alleles are fully expressed without one being dominant, ex. blood type, A & B combine to produce AB blood
Most organisms have two types of chromosomes:
autosomes (determine body characteristics) and sex chromosomes (determine the sex)
Genes for certain traits such as color blindness, hemophilia are located on the
x chromosome (female trait)
changes in genes that are inherited, can create new alleles, occur in eggs and sperm, or somatic mutations that cause cancer
when structures look the same and share a common function but are not derived from a common ancestor
all life on earth is classified into three domains - bacteria, archaea and eukarya (protista, fungi, platae, anamalia)
give birth after a short time and complete development of young in an external pouch
gestate their youth to a mature state and feed them with material from their placenta
Nine times the difference of a number and 10
(difference means subtraction)
9(a-10) a represents the number
Eighty -two percent of last year's enrollment
82% of r, or 0.82r (r represents last year's enrollment)
Which of the following is not considered a type of radiation ray:
a ball is traveling at a constant velocity of 50 m/s and has been traveling for over 2 minutes. What is the ball's acceleration?
0 (key word is constant)
Which of the following statements about enzymes is not true?
Enzymes are catalysts
Almost all enzymes are proteins
Enzymes operate most efficiently at optimum pH.
Enzymes are destroyed during chemical reactions
Enzymes are destroyed during chemical reactions
Which of the following statements about prostaglandins is NOT true?
Prostaglandins promote inflammation
Prostaglandins can only constrict blood vessels.
Prostaglandins are made in the renal medulla
Prostaglandins can lead to pain and fever
Prostaglandins can only constrict blood vessels (FALSE)
Which of the following is not considered a characteristic or property of gas:
An object immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid dispersed by the object