APUSH Chap 21

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At the beginning of the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln favored

quick military action to show the folly of secession.

Lincoln hoped that a Union victory at Bull Run would lead to the

capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond.

The South's victory at Bull Run in 1861

reduced enlistments in the South's army.

In the Civil War, the South

won the battle of Bull Run.

The Union's defeat in battle at Bull Run in 1861 was better than a victory because

the defeat caused Northerners to face up to the reality of a long, difficult war.

George B. McClellan is best described as

cautious.

After assuming command of the Army of the Potomac, General George McClellan made the

mistake of consistently believing that the enemy outnumbered him.

As a result of the Union loss in the Peninsula Campaign,

Lincoln began to draft the Emancipation Proclamation.

After the Peninsula Campaign, Union strategy included all of the following:

cutting the Confederacy in half; marching through Georgia and then the Carolinas; blockading the Confederacy's coastline; and liberating the slaves.

As a result of the Confederate victory in the Peninsula Campaign,

the Union turned to a strategy of total war.

The final Union war strategy included all the following components:

a naval blockade; undermining the Confederate economy; seizing control of the Mississippi River; and capturing Richmond.

Britain did not protest too loudly against the Union naval blockade of the Confederacy because

Britain might want to use a similar blockade in a future war.

The most alarming Confederate threat to the Union blockade came from

the ironclad Merrimack.

The Confederate blockade runner, the Merrimack,

was destroyed by Confederate soldiers.

After halting Lee's troops at Antietam,

General George McClellan was removed from his field command.

One of the key developments enabling the Union to stop the Confederate thrust into the North at Antietam was

the Union's discovery of Robert E. Lee's battle plans.

The two major battles of the Civil War fought on Union soil were

Gettysburg and Antietam.

The Battle of Antietam was particularly critical because it probably

prevented intervention by Britain and France on behalf of the Confederacy.

The North's "victory" at Antietam allowed President Lincoln to

issue the Emancipation Proclamation.

Slavery was legally abolished in the United States by

the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

The Emancipation Proclamation had the effect of

strengthening the moral cause and diplomatic position of the Union.

When it was issued in 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation

declared free only those slaves in states still in rebellion against the United States.

All of the following occurred as a result of the Emancipation Proclamation:

mounting opposition in the North to an "abolition war;" sharp increases in Union desertions; heavy congressional defeats for Lincoln's administration; and complaints from abolitionists that it did not go far enough.

During the Civil War blacks were

enlisted by the Union army only after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued.

African-Americans who fought for the Union Army in the Civil War

served bravely and suffered extremely heavy casualties

The Confederacy enlisted slaves into their army

a month before the war ended.

Robert E. Lee decided to invade the North through Pennsylvania in order to

deliver a decisive blow that would strengthen the Northern peace movement.

The Battle of Gettysburg was significant because

Union victory meant that the Southern cause was doomed.

The Union victory at Vicksburg was of major importance because

it reopened the Mississippi River to Northern trade; coupled with the victory at Gettysburg, foreign help for the Confederacy was irretrievably lost; it helped to quell Northern peace agitation; and it cut off the supply of cattle and other goods from Texas and Louisiana.

One consequence of General William T. Sherman's style of warfare was

a shorter war that saved lives.

The group in the North most dangerous to the Union cause was the

Northern Peace Democrats.

Clement L. Vallandigham, a Southern sympathizer and vocal opponent of the war,

was derisively labeled a Copperhead.

In the election of 1864, the Republicans joined with the

prowar Democrats and founded the Union party.

In the 1864 election, Abraham Lincoln's running mate was

Andrew Johnson.

In the l864 election, the Democratic Party nominated

George McClellan to oppose Lincoln's reelection.

Lincoln's victory in the election of 1864 was

aided by Union military victories and backing from Union soldiers.

The Union army's victory in the capture of Atlanta

was probably critical to Lincoln's reelection in 1864.

General Ulysses S. Grant's basic strategy in the Civil War involved

assailing the enemy's armies simultaneously and directly.

The assassination of Abraham Lincoln

was a calamity for the South.

The supreme test of American democracy in the nineteenth century was

the Civil War.

The Civil War resulted in the following:

expanded federal powers of taxation; the end of nullification and secession; the creation of the first federal social welfare agency; and the end of slavery

Among the casualties of the Civil War were

black slavery; extreme states' rights; and over a million men dead or wounded.

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