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5 Written Questions

3 Matching Questions

  1. Vancomycin (Vancocin)
  2. bacteriostatic
  3. Key concept
  1. a The macrolides are safe alternatives to penicillin. They are effective against most gram-postive bacteria and many gram-negative species.
  2. b effective for MRSA infections
    •Adverse effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, red man syndrome
  3. c Drugs that do not kill bacteria, but instead slow their growth.

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Macrolide
  2. •Safe alternatives to penicillin
    •Effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
    •Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosome
    •Bacteriostatic at low doses and bacteriocidal at high doses
    •Drug of choice for whooping cough, Legionnaire's disease
    -Also infections caused by streptococcus, H. influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia
    •Broad spectrum, so superinfections may occur
    •Otherwise, no serious side effects
  3. The aminoglycosides are narrow-spectrum drugs, most commonly prescribed for infections by aerobic, gram-negative bacteria. They have the potential to cause serious adverse effects such as ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neuromuscular blockade.
  4. Narrow-specturm antibiotics that are useful for the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, but they also have the potential for producing ear and kidney toxicity.
  5. Prototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
    Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
    Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
    Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity

5 True/False Questions

  1. Erythromycin (E-mycin)The antibiotic that would most likely be used for the dental client allergic to penicillin.


  2. antibioticBacteria that grow best without oxygen.


  3. antibioticA term used more frequently, but technically only refers to natural substances produced by microorganisms that can kill other microorganisms.


  4. nosocomial infectionsInfections acquired in a hospital or other healthcare setting.


  5. cephalosporinsPrototype drug: cefotaxime (Claforan)
    Mechanism of action: to act with broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative organisms
    Primary use: for serious infections of lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, genitourinary system, bones, blood, and joints
    Adverse effects: hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, pain at injection site


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