5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- They kill the infectious agent.
- Cephalexin (Keflex)
- Two factors that contribute to acquired resistance.
- a The action of bacteriocidal drugs.
- b Cholera
- c Cephalosporin
- d Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, flatulence,
diarrhea, mild phototoxicity, rash, dizziness,
stinging/burning with topical applications
**Anaphylaxis, secondary infections, hepatotoxicity,
- e Errors during replication of bacterial DNA and Overuse of antibiotics
5 Multiple choice questions
- The type of antibiotics that are more likely to cause superinfections.
- • Similar in structure and function to penicillins
•Have beta-lactam ring; are bacteriocidal
•Widely prescribed anti-infective class
•More than 20 cephalosporins available
•Cross-sensitivity with penicillins (5-10% of population)
•Classified by generations
Generations of cephalosporins
-First (oldest): bacteria producing beta-lactamase are resistant
-Second: more potent, broader spectrum, more resistant to beta-lactamase
-Third: longer duration of action, even broader spectrum, resistant to beta-lactamase
-Fourth: effective against organisms that are resistant to earlier generations
-Third and fourth capable of entering CSF
- Prototype drug: cefotaxime (Claforan)
Mechanism of action: to act with broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative organisms
Primary use: for serious infections of lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, genitourinary system, bones, blood, and joints
Adverse effects: hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, pain at injection site
- Anti-infective drugs are classified by their chemical structures (e.g., aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolone) or by their mechanism of action (e.g., cell-wall inhibitor, folic acid inhibitor).
5 True/False questions
Tetracyclines → demeclocycline (Declomycin) PO; 150 mg q6h or 300 mg q12h (max: 2.4 g/day)
doxycycline (Vibramycin, others) PO; 100 mg bid on Day 1, then 100 mg/day (max: 200 mg/day)
methacycline (Rondomycin) PO; 600 mg/day in 2-4 divided doses
minocycline (Minocin, others) PO; 200 mg as single dose followed by 100 mg bid
tetracycline (Achromycin, others) PO; 250-500 mg bid-qid (max: 2 g/day)
tigecycline (Tygacil) IV; 100 mg, followed by 50 mg q12h
host flora → Normal microorganisms that inhabit the skin and the upper respiratory, genitourinary, and intestinal tracts.
Penicillins → Prototype drug: penicillin G (Pentids)
Mechanism of action: to kill bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
Primary use: as drug of choice against streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci organisms that do not produce penicillinase
-Also medication of choice for gonorrhea and syphilis
Adverse effects: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, superinfections, anaphylaxis
Penicillinase resistance → The antibiotic class most widely used because of its higher margin of safety and effectiveness.
Vancomycin (Vancocin) → The antibiotic that is known as the "last chance" drug, for treatment of resistant infections.