5 Written Questions
3 Matching Questions
- Vancomycin (Vancocin)
- Key concept
- a The macrolides are safe alternatives to penicillin. They are effective against most gram-postive bacteria and many gram-negative species.
- b effective for MRSA infections
•Adverse effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, red man syndrome
- c Drugs that do not kill bacteria, but instead slow their growth.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- •Safe alternatives to penicillin
•Effective against most gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
•Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosome
•Bacteriostatic at low doses and bacteriocidal at high doses
•Drug of choice for whooping cough, Legionnaire's disease
-Also infections caused by streptococcus, H. influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia
•Broad spectrum, so superinfections may occur
•Otherwise, no serious side effects
- The aminoglycosides are narrow-spectrum drugs, most commonly prescribed for infections by aerobic, gram-negative bacteria. They have the potential to cause serious adverse effects such as ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neuromuscular blockade.
- Narrow-specturm antibiotics that are useful for the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, but they also have the potential for producing ear and kidney toxicity.
- Prototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity
5 True/False Questions
Erythromycin (E-mycin) → The antibiotic that would most likely be used for the dental client allergic to penicillin.
antibiotic → Bacteria that grow best without oxygen.
antibiotic → A term used more frequently, but technically only refers to natural substances produced by microorganisms that can kill other microorganisms.
nosocomial infections → Infections acquired in a hospital or other healthcare setting.
cephalosporins → Prototype drug: cefotaxime (Claforan)
Mechanism of action: to act with broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative organisms
Primary use: for serious infections of lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, genitourinary system, bones, blood, and joints
Adverse effects: hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, pain at injection site