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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. They kill the infectious agent.
  2. Cephalexin (Keflex)
  3. Tetracyclines
  4. Two factors that contribute to acquired resistance.
  5. Vibrio
  1. a The action of bacteriocidal drugs.
  2. b Cholera
  3. c Cephalosporin
  4. d Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, flatulence,
    diarrhea, mild phototoxicity, rash, dizziness,
    stinging/burning with topical applications
    **Anaphylaxis, secondary infections, hepatotoxicity,
    exfoliative dermatitis
  5. e Errors during replication of bacterial DNA and Overuse of antibiotics

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. The type of antibiotics that are more likely to cause superinfections.
  2. • Similar in structure and function to penicillins
    •Have beta-lactam ring; are bacteriocidal
    •Widely prescribed anti-infective class
    •More than 20 cephalosporins available
    •Cross-sensitivity with penicillins (5-10% of population)
    •Classified by generations
    Generations of cephalosporins
    -First (oldest): bacteria producing beta-lactamase are resistant
    -Second: more potent, broader spectrum, more resistant to beta-lactamase
    -Third: longer duration of action, even broader spectrum, resistant to beta-lactamase
    -Fourth: effective against organisms that are resistant to earlier generations
    -Third and fourth capable of entering CSF
  3. Prototype drug: cefotaxime (Claforan)
    Mechanism of action: to act with broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative organisms
    Primary use: for serious infections of lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, genitourinary system, bones, blood, and joints
    Adverse effects: hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, pain at injection site
  4. Macrolide
  5. Anti-infective drugs are classified by their chemical structures (e.g., aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolone) or by their mechanism of action (e.g., cell-wall inhibitor, folic acid inhibitor).

5 True/False questions

  1. Tetracyclinesdemeclocycline (Declomycin) PO; 150 mg q6h or 300 mg q12h (max: 2.4 g/day)
    doxycycline (Vibramycin, others) PO; 100 mg bid on Day 1, then 100 mg/day (max: 200 mg/day)
    methacycline (Rondomycin) PO; 600 mg/day in 2-4 divided doses
    minocycline (Minocin, others) PO; 200 mg as single dose followed by 100 mg bid
    tetracycline (Achromycin, others) PO; 250-500 mg bid-qid (max: 2 g/day)
    tigecycline (Tygacil) IV; 100 mg, followed by 50 mg q12h

          

  2. host floraNormal microorganisms that inhabit the skin and the upper respiratory, genitourinary, and intestinal tracts.

          

  3. PenicillinsPrototype drug: penicillin G (Pentids)
    Mechanism of action: to kill bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
    Primary use: as drug of choice against streptococci, pneumococci, and staphylococci organisms that do not produce penicillinase
    -Also medication of choice for gonorrhea and syphilis
    Adverse effects: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, superinfections, anaphylaxis

          

  4. Penicillinase resistanceThe antibiotic class most widely used because of its higher margin of safety and effectiveness.

          

  5. Vancomycin (Vancocin)The antibiotic that is known as the "last chance" drug, for treatment of resistant infections.

          

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