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5 Written questions

4 Matching questions

  1. Key concept
  2. Tetracyclines
  3. Fluoroquinolones SE
  4. gram-positive
  1. a Multiple drug therapies are needed in the treatment of tuberculosis, since the complex microbes are slow growing and commonly develop drug resistance.
  2. b Bacteria that contain a thick cell wall and retain a purple color after staining. Staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci.
  3. c Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, rash, restlessness, pain and
    inflammation at injection site, local burning, stinging and
    corneal irritation (ophthalmic)
    **Anaphylaxis, tendon rupture, superinfections,
    photosensitivity, pseudomembranous colitis
  4. d Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, flatulence,
    diarrhea, mild phototoxicity, rash, dizziness,
    stinging/burning with topical applications
    **Anaphylaxis, secondary infections, hepatotoxicity,
    exfoliative dermatitis

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. The action of bacteriocidal drugs.
  2. Resistance has limited the usefulness of once widely prescribed sulfonamides to urinary tract infections and a few other specific infections.
  3. The type of drug that is effective against a large number of different species of bacteria.
  4. • Similar in structure and function to penicillins
    •Have beta-lactam ring; are bacteriocidal
    •Widely prescribed anti-infective class
    •More than 20 cephalosporins available
    •Cross-sensitivity with penicillins (5-10% of population)
    •Classified by generations
    Generations of cephalosporins
    -First (oldest): bacteria producing beta-lactamase are resistant
    -Second: more potent, broader spectrum, more resistant to beta-lactamase
    -Third: longer duration of action, even broader spectrum, resistant to beta-lactamase
    -Fourth: effective against organisms that are resistant to earlier generations
    -Third and fourth capable of entering CSF
  5. The advantage of using amoxicillin (Amoxil) over penicillin G.

5 True/False questions

  1. Tetracycline•Most effective against gram-positive bacteria
    •Kill bacteria by disrupting cell wall with beta-lactam ring
    •Beta-lactamase or penicillinase is enzyme allowing bacteria to be resistant
    •New penicillins are penicillinase-resistant
    -Examples: oxacillin and cloxacillin
    •Combination drugs with beta-lactamase inhibitors
    -Examples: clavulanate, sulbactam, tazobactam
    •Penicillin—Adverse Effects
    •One of safest classes of antibiotic
    •Allergy most common adverse effect
    •If client allergic to penicillin, avoid cephalosporins
    -Possibility of cross-hypersensitivity
    •Other adverse effects
    -Skin rash; decreased RBC, WBC, or platelet counts

          

  2. Fluoroquinolones*FIRST-GENERATION Fluoroquinolones
    nalidixic acid (NeoGram) PO; Acute therapy: 1 g qid; PO; Chronic therapy: 500 mg qid
    *SECOND-GENERATION
    ciprofloxacin (Cipro, Septra) PO; 250-750 mg bid
    lomefloxacin (Maxaquin) PO; 400 mg/day
    norfloxacin (Noroxin) PO; 400 mg bid
    ofloxacin (Floxin) PO; 200-400 mg bid
    *THIRD-GENERATION
    gatifloxacin (Tequin) PO; 400 mg tid
    levofloxacin (Levaquin) PO; 250-500 mg/day
    *FOURTH-GENERATION
    gemifloxacin (Factive) PO; 320 mg/day
    moxifloxacin (Avelox) PO; 400 mg/day
    trovafloxacin mesylate (Trovan) PO; 100-300 mg/day

          

  3. penicillin-binding proteinMany bacterial cell walls contain this substance, that serves as a receptor for penicillin.

          

  4. narrow-spectrum antibioticsDrugs effective against only one or a restricted group of microorganisms.

          

  5. Marcrolidesazithromycin (Zithromax) PO; 500 mg as single dose, then 250 mg/day for 4 days
    clarithromycin (Biaxin) PO; 250-500 mg bid
    dirithromycin (Dynabac) PO; 500 mg/day
    erythromycin (E-Mycin, Erythrocin) PO; 250-500 mg bid or 333 mg tid
    troleandomycin (Tao) PO; 250-500 mg q6h

          

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