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5 Written questions

4 Matching questions

  1. mutations
  2. Key concept
  3. Miscellaneous—new
  4. Vancomycin (Vancocin)
  1. a Errors in the genetic code of bacteria.
  2. b The cephalosporins are similar in structure and function to the penicillins and are one of the most widely prescribed anti-infective classes. Cross-sensitivity may exist with the penicillins in some clients.
  3. c •Cyclic lipopeptides: daptomycin (Cubicin)—used to treat serious skin infections
    •Carbapenems: imipenem (Primaxin) have some of the broadest spectrums
    •Carbapenems: imipenem (Primaxin) have some of the broadest spectrums
    •Ketolides: telithromycin (Ketek)—used for respiratory infections
    •Glycylcyclines:tigecycline (Tygacil)—used for drug-resistant abdominal infections and complicated skin infections
  4. d The antibiotic that is known as the "last chance" drug, for treatment of resistant infections.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Bacteria are described by their shape (bacilli, cocci, or spirilla), their ability to utilize oxygen (aerobic or anaerobic), and by their staining characteristics (gram positive or gram negative).
  2. •Are bacteriocidal and affect DNA synthesis by inhibiting two bacterial enzymes
    •All have activity against gram-negative pathogens
    •Newer drugs in class have activity against gram-positive microbes.
    •Now four generations
    -Used for infections of respiratory system, GI and GU tracts, skin and soft tissue infections
    Adverse Effects
    •Do not take with multivitamins or minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, or zinc ions
    -Can decrease absorption by up to 90%
    •Most serious adverse effects are dysrhythmias and liver failure
    •CNS disturbances affect 1-8% of clients
    •Do not use in children and pregnant or lactating women
  3. A common side effect of anti-infective therapy which occur when microorganisms normally present in the body are destroyed.
  4. Penicillin
  5. Cholera

5 True/False questions

  1. Key conceptBacteria that thrive in an oxygen-rich environment.


  2. Cephalosporins• Similar in structure and function to penicillins
    •Have beta-lactam ring; are bacteriocidal
    •Widely prescribed anti-infective class
    •More than 20 cephalosporins available
    •Cross-sensitivity with penicillins (5-10% of population)
    •Classified by generations
    Generations of cephalosporins
    -First (oldest): bacteria producing beta-lactamase are resistant
    -Second: more potent, broader spectrum, more resistant to beta-lactamase
    -Third: longer duration of action, even broader spectrum, resistant to beta-lactamase
    -Fourth: effective against organisms that are resistant to earlier generations
    -Third and fourth capable of entering CSF


  3. virulenceA common word used to describe a pathogen.


  4. It is effective against a large number of organisms.The action of bacteriocidal drugs.


  5. host floraNormal microorganisms that inhabit the skin and the upper respiratory, genitourinary, and intestinal tracts.


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