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5 Written questions

4 Matching questions

  1. beta-lactamase
  2. Vancomycin (Vancocin)
  3. Miscellaneous—new
  4. Cephalosporin
  1. a An enzyme secreted by bacteria that limits the therapeutic usefulness of penicillins.
  2. b The antibiotic that is known as the "last chance" drug, for treatment of resistant infections.
  3. c •Cyclic lipopeptides: daptomycin (Cubicin)—used to treat serious skin infections
    •Carbapenems: imipenem (Primaxin) have some of the broadest spectrums
    •Carbapenems: imipenem (Primaxin) have some of the broadest spectrums
    •Ketolides: telithromycin (Ketek)—used for respiratory infections
    •Glycylcyclines:tigecycline (Tygacil)—used for drug-resistant abdominal infections and complicated skin infections
  4. d Prototype drug: cefotaxime (Claforan)
    Mechanism of action: to act with broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative organisms
    Primary use: for serious infections of lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, genitourinary system, bones, blood, and joints
    Adverse effects: hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, pain at injection site

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. In tuberculosis slow-growing mycobacteria usually become dormant, existing inside cavities called this.
  2. Many bacterial cell walls contain this substance, that serves as a receptor for penicillin.
  3. • Similar in structure and function to penicillins
    •Have beta-lactam ring; are bacteriocidal
    •Widely prescribed anti-infective class
    •More than 20 cephalosporins available
    •Cross-sensitivity with penicillins (5-10% of population)
    •Classified by generations
    Generations of cephalosporins
    -First (oldest): bacteria producing beta-lactamase are resistant
    -Second: more potent, broader spectrum, more resistant to beta-lactamase
    -Third: longer duration of action, even broader spectrum, resistant to beta-lactamase
    -Fourth: effective against organisms that are resistant to earlier generations
    -Third and fourth capable of entering CSF
  4. •Narrow-spectrum drugs, bacteriocidal
    •Reserved for serious systemic infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacteria
    -E. coli, serratia, proteus, klebsiella, and pseudomonas
    •Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis
    •More toxic than most antibiotics
    •Have potential to cause serious adverse effects
    -Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuromuscular blockade
    •Note difference in spelling "mycin" and "micin"—reflects origins of drug
  5. The purpose of culture and sensitivity testing.

5 True/False questions

  1. superinfectionsA common side effect of anti-infective therapy which occur when microorganisms normally present in the body are destroyed.


  2. macrolidesAntibiotics that are safer alternatives to penicillin because they can generally be administered over a shorter time.


  3. TetracyclinesPrototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
    Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
    Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
    Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity


  4. Oxazolidinones: linezolid (Zyvox)as effective as vancomycin against MRSA


  5. Amoxicillin (Amoxil)Fluoroquinolone or miscellaneous


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