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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Fluoroquinolones
  2. Tetracycline
  3. culture and sensitivity testing
  4. Neomycin sulfate (Mycifradin)
  5. host flora
  1. a Prototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
    Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
    Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
    Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity
  2. b •Are bacteriocidal and affect DNA synthesis by inhibiting two bacterial enzymes
    •All have activity against gram-negative pathogens
    •Newer drugs in class have activity against gram-positive microbes.
    •Now four generations
    -Used for infections of respiratory system, GI and GU tracts, skin and soft tissue infections
    •Fluoroquinolones—
    Adverse Effects
    •Do not take with multivitamins or minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, or zinc ions
    -Can decrease absorption by up to 90%
    •Most serious adverse effects are dysrhythmias and liver failure
    •CNS disturbances affect 1-8% of clients
    •Do not use in children and pregnant or lactating women
  3. c Aminoglycoside
  4. d The process of growing out the pathogen and identifying the most effective antibiotic.
  5. e Normal microorganisms that inhabit the skin and the upper respiratory, genitourinary, and intestinal tracts.

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. •Narrow-spectrum drugs, bacteriocidal
    •Reserved for serious systemic infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacteria
    -E. coli, serratia, proteus, klebsiella, and pseudomonas
    •Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis
    •More toxic than most antibiotics
    •Have potential to cause serious adverse effects
    -Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuromuscular blockade
    •Note difference in spelling "mycin" and "micin"—reflects origins of drug
  2. Infections acquired in a hospital or other healthcare setting.
  3. The antibiotic class most widely used because of its higher margin of safety and effectiveness.
  4. Genetic errors that commonly occur in bacterial cells and result in drug resistance.
  5. effective for MRSA infections
    •Adverse effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, red man syndrome

5 True/False Questions

  1. Tetracyclinesazithromycin (Zithromax) PO; 500 mg as single dose, then 250 mg/day for 4 days
    clarithromycin (Biaxin) PO; 250-500 mg bid
    dirithromycin (Dynabac) PO; 500 mg/day
    erythromycin (E-Mycin, Erythrocin) PO; 250-500 mg bid or 333 mg tid
    troleandomycin (Tao) PO; 250-500 mg q6h

          

  2. anaerobicAn organism that can cause disease.

          

  3. Penicillinase resistanceThe advantage of using amoxicillin (Amoxil) over penicillin G.

          

  4. Key conceptBacteria that thrive in an oxygen-rich environment.

          

  5. To determine which antibiotic is most effective against the infecting microorganism.Errors during replication of bacterial DNA and Overuse of antibiotics

          

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