5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Key concept
- broad-spectrum antibiotics
- a The type of antibiotics that are more likely to cause superinfections.
- b Prototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity
- c Anti-infective drugs are classified by their chemical structures (e.g., aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolone) or by their mechanism of action (e.g., cell-wall inhibitor, folic acid inhibitor).
- d Prototype drug: gentamicin (Garamycin)
Mechanism of action: to act as broad-spectrum, bacteriocidal antibiotic
Primary use: for serious urinary, respiratory, nervous, or GI infections
-Often used in combination with other antibiotics
-Used parenterally or as drops (Genoptic) for eye infections
Adverse effects: ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity
- e Veneral disease, endometriosis
5 Multiple choice questions
- The aminoglycosides are narrow-spectrum drugs, most commonly prescribed for infections by aerobic, gram-negative bacteria. They have the potential to cause serious adverse effects such as ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neuromuscular blockade.
- The small pieces of circular DNA that are transferred through conjugation, which is passing on the resistance gene to other bacteria.
- An organism that can cause disease.
- Errors during replication of bacterial DNA and Overuse of antibiotics
- Pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, speticemia, endocarditis
5 True/False questions
Key concept → The macrolides are safe alternatives to penicillin. They are effective against most gram-postive bacteria and many gram-negative species.
Aminoglycoside → •Narrow-spectrum drugs, bacteriocidal
•Reserved for serious systemic infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacteria
-E. coli, serratia, proteus, klebsiella, and pseudomonas
•Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis
•More toxic than most antibiotics
•Have potential to cause serious adverse effects
-Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuromuscular blockade
•Note difference in spelling "mycin" and "micin"—reflects origins of drug
gram-negative → Bacteria that contain a thick cell wall and retain a purple color after staining. Staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci.
culture and sensitivity testing → The process of growing out the pathogen and identifying the most effective antibiotic.
Wide spectrum → Rocky Mountain spotted fever