5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- culture and sensitivity testing
- Neomycin sulfate (Mycifradin)
- host flora
- a Prototype drug: tetracycline HCL (Achromycin, others)
Mechanism of action: effective against broad range of gram-positive and -negative organisms
Primary use: chlamydiae, rickettsiae, and mycoplasma
Adverse effects: superinfections, nausea, vomiting, epigastric burning, diarrhea, discoloration of teeth, photosensitivity
- b •Are bacteriocidal and affect DNA synthesis by inhibiting two bacterial enzymes
•All have activity against gram-negative pathogens
•Newer drugs in class have activity against gram-positive microbes.
•Now four generations
-Used for infections of respiratory system, GI and GU tracts, skin and soft tissue infections
•Do not take with multivitamins or minerals such as calcium, magnesium, iron, or zinc ions
-Can decrease absorption by up to 90%
•Most serious adverse effects are dysrhythmias and liver failure
•CNS disturbances affect 1-8% of clients
•Do not use in children and pregnant or lactating women
- c Aminoglycoside
- d The process of growing out the pathogen and identifying the most effective antibiotic.
- e Normal microorganisms that inhabit the skin and the upper respiratory, genitourinary, and intestinal tracts.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- •Narrow-spectrum drugs, bacteriocidal
•Reserved for serious systemic infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacteria
-E. coli, serratia, proteus, klebsiella, and pseudomonas
•Inhibit bacterial protein synthesis
•More toxic than most antibiotics
•Have potential to cause serious adverse effects
-Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuromuscular blockade
•Note difference in spelling "mycin" and "micin"—reflects origins of drug
- Infections acquired in a hospital or other healthcare setting.
- The antibiotic class most widely used because of its higher margin of safety and effectiveness.
- Genetic errors that commonly occur in bacterial cells and result in drug resistance.
- effective for MRSA infections
•Adverse effects: ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, red man syndrome
5 True/False Questions
Tetracyclines → azithromycin (Zithromax) PO; 500 mg as single dose, then 250 mg/day for 4 days
clarithromycin (Biaxin) PO; 250-500 mg bid
dirithromycin (Dynabac) PO; 500 mg/day
erythromycin (E-Mycin, Erythrocin) PO; 250-500 mg bid or 333 mg tid
troleandomycin (Tao) PO; 250-500 mg q6h
anaerobic → An organism that can cause disease.
Penicillinase resistance → The advantage of using amoxicillin (Amoxil) over penicillin G.
Key concept → Bacteria that thrive in an oxygen-rich environment.
To determine which antibiotic is most effective against the infecting microorganism. → Errors during replication of bacterial DNA and Overuse of antibiotics