5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- red-man syndrome
- Key concept
- a The use of fluoroquinolones has expanded far beyond their initial role in treating urinary tract infections. All fluoroquinolones have activity against gram-negative pathogens, and newer drugs in the class have activity against gram-positive microbes.
- b A widely prescribed class of antibiotics, similar in structure and function to the penicillins.
- c Prototype drug: cefotaxime (Claforan)
Mechanism of action: to act with broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative organisms
Primary use: for serious infections of lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, genitourinary system, bones, blood, and joints
Adverse effects: hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, pain at injection site
- d A reaction that can occur with rapid IV administration and includes hypotension with flushing and a red rash on the face and upper body.
- e demeclocycline (Declomycin) PO; 150 mg q6h or 300 mg q12h (max: 2.4 g/day)
doxycycline (Vibramycin, others) PO; 100 mg bid on Day 1, then 100 mg/day (max: 200 mg/day)
methacycline (Rondomycin) PO; 600 mg/day in 2-4 divided doses
minocycline (Minocin, others) PO; 200 mg as single dose followed by 100 mg bid
tetracycline (Achromycin, others) PO; 250-500 mg bid-qid (max: 2 g/day)
tigecycline (Tygacil) IV; 100 mg, followed by 50 mg q12h
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- The portion of the chemical structure of penicillin that is responsible for its antibacterial activity.
- Genetic errors that commonly occur in bacterial cells and result in drug resistance.
- amikacin (Amikin) IM; 5.0-7.5 mg/kg as a loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg bid
gentamicin (Garamycin, others) IM; 1.5-2.0 mg/kg as a loading dose, then 1-2 mg/kg bid-tid
kanamycin (Kantrex) IM; 5.0-7.5 mg/kg bid-tid
neomycin (Mycifradin) IM; 1.3-2.6 mg/kg qid
netilmicin (Netromycin) IM; 1.3-2.2 mg/kg tid or 2.0-3.25 mg/kg bid
paromomycin (Humatin) PO; 7.5-12.5 mg/kg tid
streptomycin IM; 15 mg/kg up to 1 g as a single dose
tobramycin (Nebcin) IM; 1 mg/kg tid (max: 5 mg/kg/day
- Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, rash, restlessness, pain and
inflammation at injection site, local burning, stinging and
corneal irritation (ophthalmic)
**Anaphylaxis, tendon rupture, superinfections,
photosensitivity, pseudomembranous colitis
- The type of antibiotics that are more likely to cause superinfections.
5 True/False Questions
host flora → Lyme disease
Gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin) → The antibiotic that is known as the "last chance" drug, for treatment of resistant infections.
Key concept → Careful selection of the correct antibiotic, through the use of culture and sensitivity testing, is essential for effective pharmacotherapy and to limit adverse effects. Superinfections may occur during antibiotic therapy if too many host flora are killed.
Clindamycin (Cleocin) → The antibiotic that is known as the "last chance" drug, for treatment of resistant infections.
To determine which antibiotic is most effective against the infecting microorganism. → The purpose of culture and sensitivity testing.