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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. red-man syndrome
  2. cephalosporins
  3. Tetracyclines
  4. Key concept
  5. Cephalosporin
  1. a The use of fluoroquinolones has expanded far beyond their initial role in treating urinary tract infections. All fluoroquinolones have activity against gram-negative pathogens, and newer drugs in the class have activity against gram-positive microbes.
  2. b A widely prescribed class of antibiotics, similar in structure and function to the penicillins.
  3. c Prototype drug: cefotaxime (Claforan)
    Mechanism of action: to act with broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative organisms
    Primary use: for serious infections of lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, genitourinary system, bones, blood, and joints
    Adverse effects: hypersensitivity, anaphylaxis, diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, pain at injection site
  4. d A reaction that can occur with rapid IV administration and includes hypotension with flushing and a red rash on the face and upper body.
  5. e demeclocycline (Declomycin) PO; 150 mg q6h or 300 mg q12h (max: 2.4 g/day)
    doxycycline (Vibramycin, others) PO; 100 mg bid on Day 1, then 100 mg/day (max: 200 mg/day)
    methacycline (Rondomycin) PO; 600 mg/day in 2-4 divided doses
    minocycline (Minocin, others) PO; 200 mg as single dose followed by 100 mg bid
    tetracycline (Achromycin, others) PO; 250-500 mg bid-qid (max: 2 g/day)
    tigecycline (Tygacil) IV; 100 mg, followed by 50 mg q12h

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The portion of the chemical structure of penicillin that is responsible for its antibacterial activity.
  2. Genetic errors that commonly occur in bacterial cells and result in drug resistance.
  3. amikacin (Amikin) IM; 5.0-7.5 mg/kg as a loading dose, then 7.5 mg/kg bid
    gentamicin (Garamycin, others) IM; 1.5-2.0 mg/kg as a loading dose, then 1-2 mg/kg bid-tid
    kanamycin (Kantrex) IM; 5.0-7.5 mg/kg bid-tid
    neomycin (Mycifradin) IM; 1.3-2.6 mg/kg qid
    netilmicin (Netromycin) IM; 1.3-2.2 mg/kg tid or 2.0-3.25 mg/kg bid
    paromomycin (Humatin) PO; 7.5-12.5 mg/kg tid
    streptomycin IM; 15 mg/kg up to 1 g as a single dose
    tobramycin (Nebcin) IM; 1 mg/kg tid (max: 5 mg/kg/day
  4. Nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, rash, restlessness, pain and
    inflammation at injection site, local burning, stinging and
    corneal irritation (ophthalmic)
    **Anaphylaxis, tendon rupture, superinfections,
    photosensitivity, pseudomembranous colitis
  5. The type of antibiotics that are more likely to cause superinfections.

5 True/False Questions

  1. host floraLyme disease

          

  2. Gentamicin sulfate (Garamycin)The antibiotic that is known as the "last chance" drug, for treatment of resistant infections.

          

  3. Key conceptCareful selection of the correct antibiotic, through the use of culture and sensitivity testing, is essential for effective pharmacotherapy and to limit adverse effects. Superinfections may occur during antibiotic therapy if too many host flora are killed.

          

  4. Clindamycin (Cleocin)The antibiotic that is known as the "last chance" drug, for treatment of resistant infections.

          

  5. To determine which antibiotic is most effective against the infecting microorganism.The purpose of culture and sensitivity testing.

          

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