A & P Ch 1 Organization and General Plan of the Body

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Anatomy

The study of body structure, which includes size, shape, composition and perhaps even coloration.

Physiology

The study of the functioning of the body and its parts; how the body functions.

Pathophysiology

The study of diseases as they are related to functioning.

Disease

A disorder or disruption of normal body functioning.

Diagnosis

The procedures used to identify the cause and nature of a persons illness.

Inorganic Chemicals

Chemical compounds that do not contain carbon-hydrogen covalent bonds; includes water, salt and oxygen.

Organic Chemicals

Chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen; includes carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids

Cells

The smallest living unit of a structure and function of the body.

Tissue

A group of cells with similar structure and function.

Epithelial Tissue

The tissue found on external and internal body surfaces and forms glands.

Connective Tissue

Any of the tissues that connects, supports, transports, or stores materials. Consists of cells and matrix.

Muscle Tissue

The tissue specialized for contraction and movement of parts of the body.

Nerve Tissue

The tissue specialized to generate and transmit electrochemical impulses that have many functions in the maintenance of homeostasis.

Organ

A group of tissues precisely arranged so as to accomplish specific functions.

Organ System

A group of related organs that work together to perform specific functions.

Metabolism

All of the physical changes and chemical reactions that take place within the body; includes anabolism and catabolism.

Metabolic Rate

Most often used to mean the speed at which the body produces energy and heat.

Homeostasis

The state at which the internal environment of the body remains relatively stable by responding appropriately to changes.

Positive Feedback Mechanism

A control system that requires an external event to stop or reverse the stimulus; may become a self-perpetuating cycle that causes harm.

Negative Feedback Mechanism

A control system in which a stimulus initiates a response that reverses or reduces the stimulus. Thereby stopping the response until the stimulus occurs again and there is a need for the response.

Meninges

The connective tissue membranes that line the dorsal cavity and cover the brain and the spinal cord.

Thoracic Cavity

Part of the Ventral Cavity, superior to the diaphragm.

Pleural Membranes

The serous membranes of the thoracic cavity.

Pericardial Membranes

The three membranes that enclose the heart.

Abdominal Cavity

Part of the Ventral Cavity, inferior to the diaphram and above the pelvic cavity.

Peritoneum

The serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity.

Mesentary

The visceral peritoneum that covers the abdominal organs; a large fold attaches the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall.

Pelvic cavity

Inferior portion of the ventral cavity, below the abdominal cavity.

Plane

An imaginary flat surface that separates the portions of the body or an organ.

Sections

The cutting of an organ or the body to make internal structures visible.

Frontal (Coronal) Section

A plane separating the body into the front and back portions.

Sagittal Section

A plane or cut from front to back, separating right and left parts.

Transverse Section

A plane or cut from front to back separating upper and lower parts.

Cross Section

A plane or cut perpendicular to the long axis of an organ.

Longitudinal Section

A plane or cut along the long axis of an organ or the body.

Quadrants

A division into four parts, used especially to divide the abdomen into four areas to facilitate description of locations.

Nine Areas

The subdivision of the abdomen into nine equal areas to facilitate the description of locations.

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