a word that takes the place of a noun or pronoun.
Seven Kinds of Pronouns
personal, demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite, reflexive, intensive, and relative.
3 Cases of Pronouns
nominative, objective, and possessive.
Uses of Pronouns
subject, predicate nominative, pronoun of direct address, object of preposition, direct object, indirect object, adjective, or pronoun in apposition.
Pronoun Use and Case must agree
nominative - S, PN, PDA, ProApp
objective - OP, DO, IO, ProApp
Possessive - ADJ, [S,PN]
Nominate case uses?
S, PN, PDA, ProApp
Objective case uses?
OP, DO, IO, ProApp
Possessive case uses?
ADJ, [S, PN]
refers to the relationship between the speaker and what is being said.
said to refer to the speaker.
said to refer to the person or persons to whom one is speaking.
said to refer to the person or persons about whom one is speaking.
4 Genders of Pronouns
masculine, feminine, common, or neuter.
Number of Pronouns
singular or plural.
the noun to which a pronoun refers. Must agree in person, number, and gender.
a pronoun is diagrammed the same way a noun is diagrammed.
take the place of known people, places, objects, or ideas.
used as adjectives and show ownership. DO NOT USE APOSTROPHES!!
used to designate or to point out some definite person, place, or object and may be used to avoid repetition of a noun.
Near At Hand demonstrative pronouns
This and These
Distant or Remote demonstrative pronouns
That and Those
Person of Demonstrative Pronoun
ALWAYS third person.
Singular demonstrative pronouns
This and That
Plural demonstrative pronouns
Those and These
Gender of demonstrative pronouns
determinied by its antecedent, but if it is used as an adjective, it takes the gender of the noun it modifies.
appear in place of unnamed people, places, or objects and are used in asking questions. Used as nouns or adjectives.
Person of Interrogative Pronouns
ALWAYS third person.
Number of Interrogative Pronouns
determined by its antecedent.
Gender of Interrogative Pronouns
determined by its antecedent, but if it is used as an adjective, it takes the gender of the noun it modifies.
Steps to choose between "who" and "whom"
1. Change the question to a statement.
i.e. (Who, Whom) did Mr. Wims choose?
change to" Mr. Wims did choose he or him?
2. If "he" fits, choose who, which is in the nominative case.
3. If "him" fits, choose whom, which is in the objective case.
used as pronouns in apposition. They intensify the noun or pronoun that immediately preceds them. Renames the subject and may appear at the end of the sentence.
used as objects and always refer to the subject. May be used as a predicate nominative.
To determine if the pronoun is a reflexive or intensive pronoun.....
move the pronoun ending in -self next to the word it emplasizes and say the two words together. If the pronoun containing -self does not make sense or changes the meaning of the sentence in that position, it is reflexive. (i.e. She is not herself today. Change to "She herself is not today. The second example does not make sense; therefore, herself is reflexive). If it does make sense, the prnoun is intensive.
introduce adjective clauses.
a group of words with a subject and a predicate.
a dependent clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.
Adjective Clauses are introduced by?
who, whom, whose, which, that.
Adjective clauses modify?
the antecedent of the relative pronoun.
Adjective clauses answer the questions?
which one and what kind.
essential to the sentence. required for sentence clarity and is not set off by commas.
not essential to the sentence and is not required to make the meaning of the sentence clear. It is set off by a comma or commas.
Parsing the Pronoun
Part of Speech
Singular Nominative Pronoun Case
I, you, he, she, it
Plural Nominative Pronoun Case
Singular Objective Pronoun Case
him, her, it
Plural Objective Pronoun Case
Singular Possessive Case
his, her, hers, its
Plural Possessive Pronoun Case
who whom whose which that
this that these those
Indefinite Singular Pronouns
anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything, no one, nobody, nothing, each, either, neither, one, every, much
Indefinite Plural Pronouns
both, few, several, many, others
Indefinite Plural or Singular Pronouns
some, any, non, all, most, half, more, such
who whose whom which what
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns singular
himself, herself, itself
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Plural
ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Most pronouns used as a direct object will be in what case?
Most pronouns used as the subject will be in what case?
Can WHOSE, MINE, OURS, AND HIS, be used as the subject of a sentence even though the subject is a nominative case use?
Which pronouns are usually used as objects and denote the same person as the subject?
To (who, whom) will you write a letter?
You accused (who, whom) of the crime?
Paul showed Ray and (I, me) the new present.
Our neighbor has lost (his, their) dog?
The girls brought (her, their) gavels.