Parts of Speech - The Pronoun

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Pronoun

a word that takes the place of a noun or pronoun.

Seven Kinds of Pronouns

personal, demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite, reflexive, intensive, and relative.

3 Cases of Pronouns

nominative, objective, and possessive.

Uses of Pronouns

subject, predicate nominative, pronoun of direct address, object of preposition, direct object, indirect object, adjective, or pronoun in apposition.

Pronoun Use and Case must agree

nominative - S, PN, PDA, ProApp
objective - OP, DO, IO, ProApp
Possessive - ADJ, [S,PN]

Nominate case uses?

S, PN, PDA, ProApp

Objective case uses?

OP, DO, IO, ProApp

Possessive case uses?

ADJ, [S, PN]

Pronoun Person

refers to the relationship between the speaker and what is being said.

First Person

said to refer to the speaker.

Second Person

said to refer to the person or persons to whom one is speaking.

Third Person

said to refer to the person or persons about whom one is speaking.

4 Genders of Pronouns

masculine, feminine, common, or neuter.

Number of Pronouns

singular or plural.

Antecedent

the noun to which a pronoun refers. Must agree in person, number, and gender.

Diagramming Pronouns

a pronoun is diagrammed the same way a noun is diagrammed.

Personal Pronouns

take the place of known people, places, objects, or ideas.

Possisive Pronouns

used as adjectives and show ownership. DO NOT USE APOSTROPHES!!

Demonstrative Pronouns

used to designate or to point out some definite person, place, or object and may be used to avoid repetition of a noun.

Near At Hand demonstrative pronouns

This and These

Distant or Remote demonstrative pronouns

That and Those

Person of Demonstrative Pronoun

ALWAYS third person.

Singular demonstrative pronouns

This and That

Plural demonstrative pronouns

Those and These

Gender of demonstrative pronouns

determinied by its antecedent, but if it is used as an adjective, it takes the gender of the noun it modifies.

Interrogative Pronouns

appear in place of unnamed people, places, or objects and are used in asking questions. Used as nouns or adjectives.

Person of Interrogative Pronouns

ALWAYS third person.

Number of Interrogative Pronouns

determined by its antecedent.

Gender of Interrogative Pronouns

determined by its antecedent, but if it is used as an adjective, it takes the gender of the noun it modifies.

Steps to choose between "who" and "whom"

1. Change the question to a statement.
i.e. (Who, Whom) did Mr. Wims choose?
change to" Mr. Wims did choose he or him?
2. If "he" fits, choose who, which is in the nominative case.
3. If "him" fits, choose whom, which is in the objective case.

Intensive Pronouns

used as pronouns in apposition. They intensify the noun or pronoun that immediately preceds them. Renames the subject and may appear at the end of the sentence.

Reflexive Pronouns

used as objects and always refer to the subject. May be used as a predicate nominative.

To determine if the pronoun is a reflexive or intensive pronoun.....

move the pronoun ending in -self next to the word it emplasizes and say the two words together. If the pronoun containing -self does not make sense or changes the meaning of the sentence in that position, it is reflexive. (i.e. She is not herself today. Change to "She herself is not today. The second example does not make sense; therefore, herself is reflexive). If it does make sense, the prnoun is intensive.

Relative Pronouns

introduce adjective clauses.

Clause

a group of words with a subject and a predicate.

Adjective Clause

a dependent clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.

Adjective Clauses are introduced by?

who, whom, whose, which, that.

Adjective clauses modify?

the antecedent of the relative pronoun.

Adjective clauses answer the questions?

which one and what kind.

Restrictive clauses

essential to the sentence. required for sentence clarity and is not set off by commas.

Non-Restrictive clauses

not essential to the sentence and is not required to make the meaning of the sentence clear. It is set off by a comma or commas.

Parsing the Pronoun

Part of Speech
Kind
Person
Number
Gender
Use
Case

Singular Nominative Pronoun Case

I, you, he, she, it

Plural Nominative Pronoun Case

we
you
they

Singular Objective Pronoun Case

me
you
him, her, it

Plural Objective Pronoun Case

us
you
them

Singular Possessive Case

my, mine
your, yours
his, her, hers, its

Plural Possessive Pronoun Case

our, ours
your, yours
their, theirs

Relative Pronouns

who whom whose which that

Demonstrative Pronouns

this that these those

Indefinite Singular Pronouns

anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything, no one, nobody, nothing, each, either, neither, one, every, much

Indefinite Plural Pronouns

both, few, several, many, others

Indefinite Plural or Singular Pronouns

some, any, non, all, most, half, more, such

Interrogative Pronouns

who whose whom which what

Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns singular

myself
yourself
himself, herself, itself

Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns Plural

ourselves, yourselves, themselves

Most pronouns used as a direct object will be in what case?

objective

Most pronouns used as the subject will be in what case?

possessive

Can WHOSE, MINE, OURS, AND HIS, be used as the subject of a sentence even though the subject is a nominative case use?

yes

Which pronouns are usually used as objects and denote the same person as the subject?

reflexive

To (who, whom) will you write a letter?

whom

You accused (who, whom) of the crime?

whom

Paul showed Ray and (I, me) the new present.

me

Our neighbor has lost (his, their) dog?

his

The girls brought (her, their) gavels.

their

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