max mass a white dwarf can be
more than 1.4, gravity takes over pressure
Results in a type Ia supernova
Upper main sequence stars fuse Hydrogen
Triple Alpha Process
Helium will fuse into Carbon and Some Oxygen
The Phases of Star Formation
Radiation from a heated object
Spectral Types from Hot to Cold
speed of light: schwarzschild radius
less than: outside event horizon
greater than: inside event horizon
Redshifts and Blueshifts
Sirius B and the Sun
Sirius B is less luminous and smaller
Distance where star's parallax is an arcsecond
Where were the heavy elements formed?
Inside giants and supernovae
What does absolute magnitude tell us?
How bright a star would appear if it were 10 parsecs away
Which element can't have nuclear energy extracted?
Protostars with jets
When is a protostar officially a star?
When fusion supports the weight of the star
What is a Star's Final Position on the Main Sequence Determined by?
What are stars on the Main Sequence fusing?
Hydrogen into Helium
Main Sequence Stars
radiation in core, convection in envelope
convection in core, radiation in envelope
Population One and Two Stars
less than 1% metallicity
slowing rate of spin
pointed at us
all are spinning neutron stars
Our Galaxy's Disk
always rotates with the same speed
Our Galaxy's Halo
Our Galaxy's Bulge
3.7 million solar mass black hole
Where are Open Clusters Found?
Only in the spiral arms
What does Cold Hydrogen Produce?
-The light of multiple telescopes is combined to make one big telescope
-Improves resolution of radio telescopes
What Type of Star Makes a He White Dwarf?
not enough time to let a red dwarf die
there are no He white dwarfs
Strongest Hydrogen Balmer Line
Most H is neutral
most electrons in ground state of H
Balmer lines are weak