Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell

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THIS IS ONLY VOCAB WORDS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! YOU ARE ON YOUR OWN FOR CHARTS AND STUFF!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Compound Light Microscope (CLM)

A microscope that uses a series of lenses to see light passed through a sample

Electron Microscope (EM)

A microscope that uses magnets to aim a beam of electrons at a sample

Organelles

Specialized structures that carry out specific cell functions

Nucleus

A special organelle that contains the cell's DNA, and stores information the cell needs to perform protein synthesis

Plasma Membrane

A special boundary that surrounds the cell and controls what gets into & out of the cell

Unicellular Organisms

Organisms made of just one cell, such as bacteria

Selective Permeability

The ability to allow some substance to pass through, while keeping others out

Phospholipids

The molecules that make up the plasma membrane are a special lipids

Polar

with a charge

Non-polar

without charge

phospholipid bilayer

two layers of phospholipids are arranged tail-to-tail with the heads on the outside/ the head is hydrophilic and the tail is hydrophobic

Transport Proteins

proteins that create tunnels through which are polar or big to get the bilayer can enter and leave the cell

Diffusion

the movement of substances from an area where there is high concentration of the substance to an area where there is a lower concentration of the substance

dynamic equilibrium

the point at which there is an equal concentration of a substance, or on both sides of the membrane

Passive Transport

movement of substances through the plasma membrane without the use of energy energy by the cell

concentration gradient

following the natural "flow" or tendency for things to want to move from areas where they are highly concentrated , to areas where they are less concentrated

simple diffusion

typr of passive transport in which substances pass through the plasma membrane on their own

facilitated diffusion

type of passive transport in which substances use a transport protein to get through the plasma membrane

transport proteins

proteins embedded in the plasma membrane which create tunnels for certain substances to pass through the plasma membrane

osmosis

type of passive transport in which water molecules move through the plasma membrane

solution

liquid with other substances dissolved in it

solvent

the liquid part of a solution

solute

the substance dissolved in a solution

active transport

movement of substances through the plasma membrane with the use of energy by the cell

ATP

(Adenosine Triphosphate) the type of energy used by cells

ADP

(Adenosine DiPhosphate) when a bond is broken between the phosphate groups, energy is released and this is the reaction of ATP

Endocytosis

process by which the cell brings a substance in by surrounding it in a segment of the plasma membrane

Exocytosis

the process by which a cell releases a substance by enclosing it in a vesicle, and fusing the vesicle to the plasma membrane

protein synthesis

building proteins

cytoplasm

the semi-fluid environment inside of a cell

cytoskeleton

a network of fibers which create support for the cell, and anchor organisms in place inside of the cell

nuclear envelope

a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus

nucleolus

the site where ribosomes are made

ribosomes

the organelles that build proteins

endoplasmic reticulum

a folded system of membranes where proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are made

Rough ER

the area of the ER where ribosomes are attached

Smooth ER

the area of the ER where no ribosomes are attached

Golgi Apparatus

a flattened sack of membranes that modifies, sorts and packages the proteins made in the rough ER

Vesicles

sacs from the golgi apparatus

vacuole

an area used to store food, waste and other substances needed by the cell

Lysosomes

vesicles that contain digestive enzymes which break down food particles, waste, and worn-out organelles

centrioles

bundles of fiber that function during cellular division

mitochondria

organelles that make ATP energy for the cell by turning sugars into energy using the process of cellular respiration

chloroplasts

organelles that capture light energy(from the sun) and convert it to food for the plant(glucose) through the process of photosynthesis

Thylakoids & Chlorophyll

found in chloroplasts

cell wall

a thick rigid network of fibers that surrounds the plasma membrane and protects the cell

Cell Theory

1. All living organisms are made of one or more cells
2. Cells are the basic units of structure & organization of organisms
3. All cells come from other cells

Eukaryotic Cells

1. Include plant and animal cells 2. have organelles 3. have nucleus 4. have a plasma membrane

Prokaryotic Cells

1. include unicellular organisms 2. do not have a nucleus or any other organelle 3. have a plasma membrane 4. has DNA that floats freely

Types of Passive Transport

Simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion(including transport proteins), and osmosis

types of osmosis

isotonic, hypotonic, and hypotonic

Isotonic

concentration of water inside & outside of the cell are the same

Hypotonic

concentration of water outside of the cell is Higher than the concentration of water inside of the cell

Hypertonic

concentration of water outside the cell is LOWER than the concentration of water inside the cell

Types of Active Transport

Protein pumps, endocytosis, and exocytosis

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