While there are differences in the meaning of work among countries, similarities appear to exist in:
two common work dimensions: work content and job context
The process of subdividing and departmentalizing an organization is _____; whereas, _____ is the process of linking jobs and departments into a cohesive whole.
Contrary to the famous statement made by Harold Beneen, former Chairman of ITT, "If I had enough arms and legs and time, I'd do it all myself," all organizations must divide work. This quote reflects the understanding that jobs result from:
The process of connecting jobs and departments into a coordinated, cohesive whole is known as:
The standardization and the narrow, explicit specification of task activities for workers defines:
The job design method aimed at increasing the motivational factors in a job is called:
The Job Characteristics Model is a/an:
person-job fit approach to job design and employee job placement
Which of the following is NOT a basic premise of the social information
other people's reaction to our job-related behaviors provide us with important cognitive cues as to determine whether we fit the overall culture
Ergonomics is used in the _____ approach to job designs.
biological, perceptual/motor, mechanistic, motivational
The interdisciplinary approach to job design emphasizing the person's interaction with physical aspects of the work environment and concern with physical exertion is the:
An analysis of medical claims at Chaparral Steel Co. identified lower back problems as the most common problem experienced by steelworkers and managers alike. The interdisciplinary approach most appropriate for this problem would be:
Lower job satisfaction, motivation, and higher absenteeism will be negative outcomes that should be anticipated with which one of the following interdisciplinary approaches to job design?
All of the following are important components or approaches to the interdisciplinary approach to job design except:
social aspects of the work environment
If you were to redesign jobs to increase the health and well-being of your workforce, similar to Scandinavian concerns, which of the following set of job characteristics would be the most beneficial?
reduce worker uncertainty, increase worker control, and manage conflict
The J.A. Counter & Associates firm has implemented a ROWEing work environment which is a reflection of:
A mobile platform of computer, telecommunication, and information technology and services is called:
a virtual office
Job enlargement was developed to overcome the problem of:
boredom associated with scientific management's approach to jobs
Scientific management includes all of the following elements except:
the integration of management and work such that workers had to exercise self-management
A shortcoming of work simplification is that:
it undervalues the human capacity for thought and creativity
The JDS refers to:
the survey instrument used to measure the elements in the Job Characteristics Model
The anthropocentric job design approach places:
human considerations at the center of job design decision
Organizational design is a process of specifying structural features of an organization. This process begins with:
the organizations goals
An organization chart shows:
formal lines of authority and supervisor-employee reporting relationships
The process of constructing and adjusting an organization's structure to achieve its goals is:
The degree of differentiation most affected by employee's specialized knowledge, education, or training is:
The thousands of State Farm Insurance Company agents' offices scattered throughout the United States are an example of:
Lawrence and Lorsch suggest that an organization's complexity should mirror:
the complexity of the environment
A highly bureaucratized organization, such as the Social Security Administration, exhibits all of the following characteristics except:
The extent to which work activities are defined and routinely performed the same way is known as:
The particular grouping of activities performed by an individual or the division of labor refers to:
The faculty of a university comprises which of Mintzberg's fundamental elements of the organization?
When examining the relationship between size and basic design dimensions, small organizations have more _____ than large organizations?
For an organization to take advantage of its larger size into the 21st century, it must become:
centerless with a global core
An organization with high task variability and unanalyzable problems should:
have an organic approach to structuring
An example of the subjective element of a career is:
your perception of your potential in a chosen occupation
The pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a person's life is known as:
Which of the following is an incorrect match of Holland's personality types and occupations?
realistic, pro baseball player
An assumption that drives Holland's theory is that people choose occupations:
based on matches with their own personality
A way of avoiding inherent conflicts between the individual and organization regarding job choice is:
realistic job preview
Almost 40% of new managers fail within the first 18 months on the job because of:
lack of human skills
A person's most significant career achievements are likely to occur in the _____ career stage.
According to Levinson's life stages and career stages, middle adulthood is best associated with:
the advancement/maintenance stage
An implicit agreement between an individual and an organization that specifies what each is expected to give and receive in the relationship is known as:
a psychological contract
The change and acquisition stage of organizational socialization occurs during the _____ career stage.
Which type of support in psychological contracts provides empathy, esteem, caring, or love?
Individuals reassess their goals and feel the need to make changes in their career dreams during which stage of the career stage model?
Sequences of job experiences along which employees move during their career is known as:
An approach to building competencies by moving laterally through different departments or different projects is:
Flextime, compressed workweeks, work-at-home arrangements, part-time hours, job sharing, and leave options are all considered:
alternative work arrangements necessary to manage work-home conflicts
Sustaining performance and becoming a mentor are two issues individuals need to address during:
the maintenance stage
Self-perceived talents, motives, and values that guide an individual's career decisions are called:
Someone with a security/stability career anchor would prefer work as a/an:
tenured college professor
Which of the following is NOT a term to describe the organizations that will succeed in meeting the competitive challenges that businesses face?
While downsizing can increase shareholder value by better aligning costs and revenues, the effective organizations are the ones that excel at:
reengineering and downsizing
All of the following are part of globalizing an organization except:
focusing on behavior rather than attitudes
Technological changes bring about profound change because they are not just changes in the way work is performed, but also result in:
changes in work relationships and organizational structures
Most changes that encourage employees to become more ethical are targeted at:
operations and the materials that may have environmental consequences
When an organization moves to a radically different, and sometimes unknown, future state, they have made what type of change?
When the organization changes its mission, culture, culture, goals, strategy, and structure it has:
made a transformational change
When the organization makes a large-scale change such as moving to a new structure, the change would be considered:
A price adjustment in gasoline by an oil company in response to an excise tax increase is a/an _____ change.
A person who acts as the initiator and assumes responsibility for change management is called a/an:
Change leaders within organizations tend to be all of the following except:
balanced in both technical and interpersonal skills
In a situation of significant organizational change, uncertainty or _____ may be prevalent.
fear of the unknown
The managerial intervention most appropriate for the disorientation reaction to change is:
explanation and planning
In Lewin's force field analysis technique, the status quo can be viewed as a/an:
state of equilibrium
Lewin's model proposes that successful change efforts require:
the three-stage process must be completed
The establishment of new attitudes, values, and behaviors as the new status quo is consistent with what stage in Lewin's change model?
An appropriate organization development technique when the organization is large and the objective is to reach as many employees as possible is:
A good organization development effort that can relieve role ambiguity and conflict is:
management by objectives
When people with an external locus of control perform well,
They are likely to attribute their performance to luck or the fact that the task was easy
A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting form the appraisal of one's job or job experiences reflects
Maslow's hierarchy of needs model begins with ______ needs and ends with ________ needs.
According to Tuckman's model' dependence on guidance and direction is the defining characteristic in what stage of group development?