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If a researcher watches one week old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using:

Scientific observation

Most developmental psychologists are:

eclectic, because each theory of human development has its limitations.

Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of nature and nurture in our development?

The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture , in turn, affects genes.

what does current research tell us about the resolution of the nature-nurture controversy?

Nature is proving to be dominant over nurture in the understanding of human behavior.

The process by which a skilled person helps a novice learn by engaging the learner in joint activities is referred to as:

guided participation

Which of the following theories holds that genes and environmental influences work hand in hand to eventually allow or prevent developmental behaviors?

epigenetic

A researcher has just completed a study of Princess Diana, including her family background, life history, and expressed opinions. This is an example of:

a case study

A cognitive theory focuses on:

thoughts

In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ____ group.

experimental

WHich of the following theories holds that a person's behavior cannot be understood without studying the context in which he lives in?

sociocultural

Researchers obtain informed consent of individuals participating in their studies to ensure the participants understand that:

participation is voluntarily, confidential, and harmless for all.

A 9 year old girl learning to be competent at school would be in Erikson's psychosocial stage of :

Industry vs. inferiority

Zeke is reviewing a research study design for a co-worer. In it, he discovers a procedure that is questionable in terms of participant safety. For guidance, he turns to his academic discipline's:

Code of ethics

A crucial element of the science of human development is the:

focus on all kinds of people, young and old

The researcher most associated with operant conditioning is:

B. F. Skinner

Piaget's second stage of cognitive development is called:

pre operational

Within the scientific method, once a researcher poses a question, her next step is to:

develop a hypothesis

The scientist who first demonstrated classical conditioning was:

Ivan Pavlov

Cohort refers to a group of people who:

are born within a few years of one another

Parents who spend a great deal of time and money trying to find the best school for their children are emphasizing the importance of:

nurture

Social learning theory emphasizes:

observation and imitation

Piaget was most interested in:

how children think

During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:

use senses and motor skills to understand the world

In cross-sectional research on development, each of the groups studied is of a different:

age

If a group of people have the same ancestors, religion, and language, they are said to be part of the same:

ethnic group

Lev Vygotsky is best known for his contributions to ____ theory.

sociocultural

The set of moral principles used by each academic discipline and professional society to protect the integrity of research is referred to as their:

code of ethics

The study of human development is empirical, meaning that it is based on:

actual facts

According to psychoanalytical theories, human development is mainly determined by:

our unconscious motives and drives

A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. This study was:

an experiment

A researcher studies the relationship between two variables and determines the likelihood that a change in one variable will result in a change in the other. What type of research is this person conducting?

correlational

Behaviorism focuses on which of the following?

observable behavior

The most advanced stage of cognitive development according to Piaget is the:

formal operational

A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10,20,30, and 40 years old, is conducting:

longitudinal research

Emil was taught as a child to surrender his chair to elderly if there were an insufficient number of chairs in a room. His action demonstrates the application of:

sociocultural theory

Developmentalists' argument over the relative importance of hereditary and environmental influences is called the:

nature-nurture controversy

The central thesis of sociocultural theory is that human development is the result of a dynamic interaction between developing persons and their:

surrounding society and culture

To understand levels of human development, Urie Brofenbrenner advocated a(n):

ecological-systems approach

In order, Freud's first three stages of development are:

oral, anal, phallic

When doing research with children, which of the following must be obtained?

the parent's informed consent

When an emergent theory becomes a consistent and recurring source of research, and becomes comprehensive and widely applied, it has become what type of theory?

grand

You and your high school classmates are part of the same:

cohort

Traits, capacities, and limitations that we each receive from our biological parents are said to be a result of:

nature

In order to draw conclusions that are based on evidence, rather than opinion or wishful thinking, researchers use:

the scientific method

In operant conditioning, reinforcers:

strengthen behaviors which they follow

Our genetic structure is set:

at the moment of conception

The values, assumptions, customs, clothing, technologies, and art that a group of people have developed over the years as a design for living are referred to as their:

culture

According to sociocultural theory, the zone of proximal development refers to the skills that:

the learner can master with assistance

An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is:

changing the data to support the hypothesis

Which of the following is a common difficulty in cross-sectional research?

Cohort differences- that is, differences in background variables

Brain damage, loss of vision, and mental retardation which may be caused by eating undercooked meat and handling cat feces or garden dirt is attributed to:

toxoplasmosis

Bil is a genetic counselor. In his position, he has an ethical obligation to:

keep results of client's tests confidential, away form insurance companies and public records.

one difference between sperm cells and ova is that:

ova carry an X chromosome, whereas sperm carry either an X or a Y chromosome.

One of the surprising finding of the Human Genome Project is that:

all living creatures share genes.

The germinal period ends approximately:

two weeks after conception

Jeff's genome contains a recessive genes for cystic fibrosis. Jeff is said to be a ___ of the gene for cystic fibrosis.

carrier

Most zygotes with serious chromosomal problems:

do not begin to develop or are aborted spontaneously.

Full-term pregnancies typically last:

38 weeks from the date of conception

The second stage of labor begins when the:

baby's head appears at the opening of the vagina.

When a particular inherited characteristic is controlled more by one genes of a pair than by the other, the stronger gene is called:

dominant

Which of the following statements is true regarding new discoveries about genotypes and phenotypes.

most environmental influences on children raised in the same home are not shared.

Every normal human body cell contains how many chromosomes?

23 pairs

Chromosomal abnormalities occur when a zygote's cells have:

more or fewer than the usual 46 chromosomes.

The sperm and the ovum are:

gametes

FAS is caused by which of the following teratogens?

alcohol

Tony denied any involvement with Belinda but with a single drop of blood, his paternity for her child was confirmed. How?

Through his DNA

What is the function of the placenta?

To protect and nourish the developing fetus

Teratology is the study of:

birth defects

Molecules of DNA make up which of the following?

chromosomes

Trisomy-21 is also called:

Down syndrome

Suppose a particular couple has a 50/50 chance of having a child with a lifelong, painful disease that will require expensive medical care. Who makes the decision about whether the couple tries to conceive?

the couple

A sperm has ____ as many chromosomes as a normal body cell.

half

The best policy regarding prescription drugs during pregnancy is:

take drugs only if medically necessary, prescribed by a knowledgeable doctor.

An organism's entire genetic inheritance is referred to as its:

genotype

Approximately how many genes are contained in the human genome?

20,000

The chief chromosomal feature or fragile-X syndrome is that:

a single gene has more than 200 repetitions of one triplet.

Any birth which occurs 35 or fewer weeks after conception is considered to be:

preterm

A breech baby is:

buttocks first going into the cervix when labor begins.

In a normal uncomplicated birth, the position of presentation is:

head first

Which of the following is an indicator that a mother's behavioral traits might have an influence on her child even after the child is born?

Research shows that maternal stress can affect the fetal nervous system, influencing the child's lifelong response to stress.

How long is the fetal period?

From nine weeks after conception until birth

The baby is born at the end of:

the second stage of labor

During prenatal development, a particular organ or body part is most vulnerable to exposure to teratogens during its:

critical period

Rubella is:

another name for German measles

The first organ system that shows any sign of activity is the:

cardiovascular system

Genetic disorders that are dominant are:

always expressed

The fragile and tiny cell mass that is composed of cells from the duplicated, divided, and differentiated zygote is called:

a blastocyst

Which of the following is the scientific definition of infertility?

the inability to conceive after at least a year of trying to do so via sexual intercourse

The condition where one substance intensifies the effects of another substance is the:

interaction effect

Because most traits are polygenic, they are:

produced by many genes.

Phenotype refers to:

the actual expression of genetic traits

Monique contracted rubella early in her pregnancy. Damage is most likely to affect the embryo's:

eyes

When a baby is first born, it is bluish in color. As soon as it cries, it will begin to turn pink. Which of the following body parts will be the last to turn pink?

the hands and feet

The longest period of prenatal development is the:

fetal period

An image of an unborn fetus produced by using high-frequency sound waves is called a(n):

ultrasound

Since 1996, neural-tube defects have decreased by over 25 percent in the United States and Canada. No decrease has occurred in Europe. What is the reason for the decrease in the United States and Canada?

Cereals and breads in the United States and Canada are now fortified with folic acid.

Approximately what percentage of infertility problems originate with men?

33 percent

One of the genes for eye color from the mother matches exactly with a gene from the father at the moment of conception. This pair of genes is said to be:

homozygous

An XX pattern in the 23rd pair of chromosomes indicates the fetus will:

be female

Implantation begins approximately how long after conception?

10 days

According to Piaget, the stage-five infant is like a:

scientist who experiments to see

In terms of visual development, newborns:

are legally blind

Erikson's second stage of development is called:

autonomy vs. shame and doubt

According to Piaget, the core of intelligence is called:

adaptation

When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:

Separation anxiety

"Proximity-seeking" and "contact-maintaining" behaviors are displays of:

attachment

Breast milk:

provides antibodies to fight diseases

A scientific term for becoming bored with an object after repeated exposure to it is:

habituation

Brain functions that rely on specific experiences to develop are called:

experience dependent

Piaget called the infants' first period of cognitive development:

sensorimotor intelligence

At what point in development is the sense of hearing already quite acute?

at birth

What is the function of neurotransmitters?

To carry information from one neuron to another.

According to the psychoanalytical theory, the prime focus of pleasure in early infancy is:

the mouth

The idea that "multiple attentional, social and linguistic cues" contribute to early language learning supports the idea of:

a hybrid theory of language learning

In Erikson's theory, the infant's earliest task is described as that of:

learning trust vs mistrust

In the text in reference to Jacob, how did Jacob's parents learn to relate to him?

through the use of "floor time"

FIne motor skills are those that:

require small body movements

Prior to Piaget's research, which of the following was an erroneous assumption about children's cognitive abilities?

Most people believed that children understood objects the same was that adults do

Which of the following develops at around 6 weeks of age?

the social smile

A reflex is a(n):

involuntary response to a stimulus

That objects continue to exist when they cannot be seen defines:

object permanence

A process stimulating the body's immune system to defend the body against a contagious disease is called:

immunization

An infant's distress at an unfamiliar person is called:

stranger wariness

The average child can walk well unassisted at about:

1 year

Once infants begin to interpret their perceptions through the process of adaptions, they

thinking

Developmentalists agree that infants' emotional development is directly connected to brain development in the areas of:

social awareness and reactions to stress

The sense that is the least developed at birth is:

vision

The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known as:

head-sparing

The term holophrase is used to denote:

the infant's use of one word to express a whole thought

During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:

use senses and motor skills to understand the world

The learned ability to move and control some parts of the body is referred to as:

motor skill

The average newborn doubles her birthweight in:

four months

A child fixated in the oral stage may become an adult who:

eats excessively

Whenever the eyes, ears, tongue, skin, or mouth detect a stimulus, ___ has occurred.

sensation

Coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called:

synchrony

Which of the following statements is true?

In the final stage of sensorimotor intelligence, toddlers begin to anticipate and solve simple problems by using mental combinations.

Sensorimotor stage four is the stage of:

new adaptations and anticipation

Which of the following theories compares human thinking processes to the processes of a computer?

information-processing theory

The process through which unused and misconnected dendrites atrophy and die is called:

pruning

On average, children begin saying recognizable words at about:

12 months of age

Newborns prefer:

speech over most other sounds

Secure attachment makes a toddler:

willing to explore

Which of the following best describes the cortex of the brain?

It makes up the outer layers of the brain and is responsible for thinking, feeling, and sensing

The emotions of shame, pride, and embarrassment require that a person first:

gain awareness of other people

Infants' repetition of certain syllables at the age of about 6 or 7 months is called:

babbling

If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may ten touch her nose. This shows that the child has some:

self-awareness

What is the name of the thick, high-calorie fluid which is secreted by a new mother's breasts for a few days following birth?

colostrum

Which of the following represents the first type of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence that involves the infant's own body?

primary circular reactions

Once an infant becomes responsive to other people and to objects and touches and moves them, she is engaging in:

Secondary circular reactions

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