If a researcher watches one week old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using:
Most developmental psychologists are:
eclectic, because each theory of human development has its limitations.
Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of nature and nurture in our development?
The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture , in turn, affects genes.
what does current research tell us about the resolution of the nature-nurture controversy?
Nature is proving to be dominant over nurture in the understanding of human behavior.
The process by which a skilled person helps a novice learn by engaging the learner in joint activities is referred to as:
Which of the following theories holds that genes and environmental influences work hand in hand to eventually allow or prevent developmental behaviors?
A researcher has just completed a study of Princess Diana, including her family background, life history, and expressed opinions. This is an example of:
a case study
In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ____ group.
WHich of the following theories holds that a person's behavior cannot be understood without studying the context in which he lives in?
Researchers obtain informed consent of individuals participating in their studies to ensure the participants understand that:
participation is voluntarily, confidential, and harmless for all.
A 9 year old girl learning to be competent at school would be in Erikson's psychosocial stage of :
Industry vs. inferiority
Zeke is reviewing a research study design for a co-worer. In it, he discovers a procedure that is questionable in terms of participant safety. For guidance, he turns to his academic discipline's:
Code of ethics
A crucial element of the science of human development is the:
focus on all kinds of people, young and old
Within the scientific method, once a researcher poses a question, her next step is to:
develop a hypothesis
Parents who spend a great deal of time and money trying to find the best school for their children are emphasizing the importance of:
During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:
use senses and motor skills to understand the world
If a group of people have the same ancestors, religion, and language, they are said to be part of the same:
The set of moral principles used by each academic discipline and professional society to protect the integrity of research is referred to as their:
code of ethics
According to psychoanalytical theories, human development is mainly determined by:
our unconscious motives and drives
A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. This study was:
A researcher studies the relationship between two variables and determines the likelihood that a change in one variable will result in a change in the other. What type of research is this person conducting?
A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10,20,30, and 40 years old, is conducting:
Emil was taught as a child to surrender his chair to elderly if there were an insufficient number of chairs in a room. His action demonstrates the application of:
Developmentalists' argument over the relative importance of hereditary and environmental influences is called the:
The central thesis of sociocultural theory is that human development is the result of a dynamic interaction between developing persons and their:
surrounding society and culture
To understand levels of human development, Urie Brofenbrenner advocated a(n):
When doing research with children, which of the following must be obtained?
the parent's informed consent
When an emergent theory becomes a consistent and recurring source of research, and becomes comprehensive and widely applied, it has become what type of theory?
Traits, capacities, and limitations that we each receive from our biological parents are said to be a result of:
In order to draw conclusions that are based on evidence, rather than opinion or wishful thinking, researchers use:
the scientific method
The values, assumptions, customs, clothing, technologies, and art that a group of people have developed over the years as a design for living are referred to as their:
According to sociocultural theory, the zone of proximal development refers to the skills that:
the learner can master with assistance
An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is:
changing the data to support the hypothesis
Which of the following is a common difficulty in cross-sectional research?
Cohort differences- that is, differences in background variables
Brain damage, loss of vision, and mental retardation which may be caused by eating undercooked meat and handling cat feces or garden dirt is attributed to:
Bil is a genetic counselor. In his position, he has an ethical obligation to:
keep results of client's tests confidential, away form insurance companies and public records.
one difference between sperm cells and ova is that:
ova carry an X chromosome, whereas sperm carry either an X or a Y chromosome.
One of the surprising finding of the Human Genome Project is that:
all living creatures share genes.
Jeff's genome contains a recessive genes for cystic fibrosis. Jeff is said to be a ___ of the gene for cystic fibrosis.
Most zygotes with serious chromosomal problems:
do not begin to develop or are aborted spontaneously.
When a particular inherited characteristic is controlled more by one genes of a pair than by the other, the stronger gene is called:
Which of the following statements is true regarding new discoveries about genotypes and phenotypes.
most environmental influences on children raised in the same home are not shared.
Chromosomal abnormalities occur when a zygote's cells have:
more or fewer than the usual 46 chromosomes.
Tony denied any involvement with Belinda but with a single drop of blood, his paternity for her child was confirmed. How?
Through his DNA
Suppose a particular couple has a 50/50 chance of having a child with a lifelong, painful disease that will require expensive medical care. Who makes the decision about whether the couple tries to conceive?
The best policy regarding prescription drugs during pregnancy is:
take drugs only if medically necessary, prescribed by a knowledgeable doctor.
The chief chromosomal feature or fragile-X syndrome is that:
a single gene has more than 200 repetitions of one triplet.
Which of the following is an indicator that a mother's behavioral traits might have an influence on her child even after the child is born?
Research shows that maternal stress can affect the fetal nervous system, influencing the child's lifelong response to stress.
During prenatal development, a particular organ or body part is most vulnerable to exposure to teratogens during its:
The fragile and tiny cell mass that is composed of cells from the duplicated, divided, and differentiated zygote is called:
Which of the following is the scientific definition of infertility?
the inability to conceive after at least a year of trying to do so via sexual intercourse
The condition where one substance intensifies the effects of another substance is the:
Monique contracted rubella early in her pregnancy. Damage is most likely to affect the embryo's:
When a baby is first born, it is bluish in color. As soon as it cries, it will begin to turn pink. Which of the following body parts will be the last to turn pink?
the hands and feet
Since 1996, neural-tube defects have decreased by over 25 percent in the United States and Canada. No decrease has occurred in Europe. What is the reason for the decrease in the United States and Canada?
Cereals and breads in the United States and Canada are now fortified with folic acid.
One of the genes for eye color from the mother matches exactly with a gene from the father at the moment of conception. This pair of genes is said to be:
According to the psychoanalytical theory, the prime focus of pleasure in early infancy is:
The idea that "multiple attentional, social and linguistic cues" contribute to early language learning supports the idea of:
a hybrid theory of language learning
In the text in reference to Jacob, how did Jacob's parents learn to relate to him?
through the use of "floor time"
Prior to Piaget's research, which of the following was an erroneous assumption about children's cognitive abilities?
Most people believed that children understood objects the same was that adults do
A process stimulating the body's immune system to defend the body against a contagious disease is called:
Developmentalists agree that infants' emotional development is directly connected to brain development in the areas of:
social awareness and reactions to stress
The biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known as:
During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:
use senses and motor skills to understand the world
Which of the following statements is true?
In the final stage of sensorimotor intelligence, toddlers begin to anticipate and solve simple problems by using mental combinations.
Which of the following theories compares human thinking processes to the processes of a computer?
Which of the following best describes the cortex of the brain?
It makes up the outer layers of the brain and is responsible for thinking, feeling, and sensing
The emotions of shame, pride, and embarrassment require that a person first:
gain awareness of other people
If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may ten touch her nose. This shows that the child has some:
What is the name of the thick, high-calorie fluid which is secreted by a new mother's breasts for a few days following birth?
Which of the following represents the first type of feedback loops in sensorimotor intelligence that involves the infant's own body?
primary circular reactions
Once an infant becomes responsive to other people and to objects and touches and moves them, she is engaging in:
Secondary circular reactions
"Constitutionally based individual differences in emotions, activity, and self-control" would be a useful and appropriate definition of:
Writing your name is a _____, whereas kicking a ball is a(n) _____.
fine motor skill; gross motor skill
According to Erikson, which of the following is typical of young children?
a sense of self-doubting and an immodest self-concept
Skills that a person can perform with assistance, but which they cannot quite perform on their own lie within the:
Zone of proximal development
An angry 5-year-old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed:
Consumption of calcium by children is lower than it was 20 years ago because:
children are drinking more soda
If a preschool child thinks a tall 20-year-old is older than a short 40-year-old, this is an example of:
focus on appearance
A young child will have the most difficult time understanding words which:
express the relationships of place and time
Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but is not intended to harm is called:
William is at the toy store and sees a construction set. William asks his dad if he can have it for his birthday. His dad asks him if he thinks he would be able to use it. William reminds his dad of how good he is at building models with his Legos. Which of the following is demonstrated by this example?
William's strong sense of self-esteem
In which of the following areas will deficits be most apparent in a child who is maltreated?
Five-year-old Drew has temper tantrums that are diminishing, and he is better able to control his emotions. From a brain development standpoint:
His prefrontal cortex is becoming more developed
_____ is generally considered a more mature emotion than _____ because the former one comes from within the individual and demonstrates self-awareness.
Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent:
an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex
Any superstitious behavior such as the belief that a black cat can bring bad luck is called:
Generally speaking, which of the following best explains why young children have difficulty thinking logically?
Children in this age group tend to focus on single aspects of an object or situation
The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:
expectations for maturity
The Reggio Emilia early-childhood program focuses on:
mastery of skills not typically accomplished until age 7
Many preschoolers have trouble dressing themselves, writing or stringing small beads. This can be explained by a lack of:
brain maturation and having short, stubby fingers
Jodee, age 5, insists on having all the different foods on her plate seperated. If the vegetables touch the meat, for example, she insists on a clean plate. Jodee's parents are concerned about this behavior. What advice would you offer them?
Allow Jodee to grow out of this "just-right" obsession
According to Vygotsky, the internal dialogue that we have with ourselves either silently or out loud is referred to as:
Failure to understand that undoing a sequence of events will bring about the original conditions or situation is called:
Which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children?
mastery of gross and fine motor skills
Pete's father is physically abusive toward Pete, often leaving bruises. His mother, also living in the home, witness the abuse but says nothing. She is:
Parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children are exhibiting the:
authoritative pattern of parenting
" Our traits and behaviors are the result of interaction between genes and early experience" is the textbook quote for the _____ theory of childhood development
A child is shown two identical tall containers, half-filled with water. The contents of one container are then poured into a short, wide container. If the child states that both containers still have the same amount, that phenomenon would be called:
Romy understands that if she has 4 pieces of pizza and we give her 2 more, she will have 6. However, she does not know what happens if she has 6 and we take away 2. Piaget would say that Romy:
has demonstrated irreversible thinking
Children who are fearful, easily startled, and confused between reality and fantasy are expressing symptoms of:
post-traumatic stress disorder
The Piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only from hod personal perspective is:
If a reported incident of child maltreatment has been investigated and verified, it is considered to be:
According to your text, _______ differences are biological and _____ differences are culturally prescribed.
When learning a second language, the basics of language learning such as the naming explosion, fast mapping, and over regularization apply:
to both the native and second language
Children's "increasing ability to regulate themselves, to take responsibility, and to exercise self-control" all contribute to their sense of:
The Piagetian stage of development that is similar to Kohlberg's stage of pre conventional morality is:
the preoperational stage
In their learning and problem-solving abilities, school-age children differ from preschoolers in that they:
can evaluate their own progress
According to Freud, which of the following will 8-year-old Sven experience?
repression of his psychosexual needs
A significant delay in a specific area of learning not associated with a physical handicap, mental retardation, or stressful environment is indication of:
a learning disability
School-age children would most admire:
Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane
Evaluating a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish and monitor one's performance is called:
The best example of an aggressive-rejected child is:
Veru, who is disliked by most children because she is uncooperative.
According to the information-processing theory, children learn concepts best if:
They are taught directly.
Susan decides not to tell the teacher that her classmate Ian is cheating on the math exam because she's afraid the other kids will call her a snitch. This is an example of stage ____ of moral development.
Which of the following is the biggest determinant of whether a child will develop healthy lifestyle habits?
having parents, teachers, and peers who demonstrate healthy lifestyle habits
When capable of concrete operational thought, children:
can apply their reasoning to real situations
Being overweight means having a body mass index (BMI) in the ___ percentile of growth charts; whereas obese means having a BMI in the _____ percentile.
The issue of local control of curriculum and national standards is a controversial aspect of:
the No Child Left Behind Act
If Max responds that "Heinz shouldn't steal because stealing is against the law,' he is exemplifying which Kohlberg stage?
Piaget has provided us with the _____of children's concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the _____.
individual context; social context
In the school years, Piaget believed that children are in the period of:
concrete operational thought
The child most likely to be diagnosed with ADHD is:
Scott, a North American boy who has concentration difficulties and is very impulsive
The ability to concentrate on certain specific stimuli while ignoring others is:
Gabriella, an average 10-year-old, can probably throw a ball _____ she could when she was 6.
twice as far
According to Piaget, which of the following abilities do children gain during middle childhood?
Child psychologists agree that drugs are:
both underused and overused with treating children with ADHD.
According to Erikson's theory, children is middle childhood tend to judge themselves as either.
industrious or inferior
Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn't. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg's view of moral development?
Two factors that universally interfere with family function in every nation are:
low income and high conflict
Jeremy understands that his sister Sarah is still a girl whether she wears a dress or pants. This is an example of Jeremy's understanding of:
Eduardo is in the fourth grade. Part of the instruction in his classroom is conducted in English and part is conducted in Spanish. His classroom demonstrates:
Which of the following learning disabilities is difficult to diagnose and is characterized by unusual difficulty with reading?
Frequently, school-age children on a baseball field will shout, "Think fast!" and immediately throw a baseball in the direction of a teammate. What is being tested is the teammate's:
When one assess one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers, one is engaging in:
Which of the following abilities is necessary in order for children to be aware of what they already know and what they still need to learn?
Sonja is studying for an exam while her roommate is talking to her boyfriend on the phone. Sonja cannot concentrate on her books because she is unable to use:
Because school children judge their own talents and limitations more realistically than preschoolers:
their self-confidence may suffer as they compare themselves to others
Research shows that a child is most likely to be a victim of bullying if the child is:
The ability to understand connections between one fact and another, even though it is not stated, is called:
One of the major differences in brain development that distinguishes middle childhood is the development of:
By the age of 10, which of the following is true regarding friendships:
Both boys and girls want to have best friends