General Psychology Final Unit 1

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You are out for a drive with the family and are lucky enough to get a window seat. The rapidly passing scenery you see out the window is first stored in
a. primary memory.
b. long-term memory.
c. short-term memory.
d. sensory memory.

D. Sensory Memory

An auto accident rendered Jane's nervous system unable to send messages for her to breathe, so she is on a respirator. Which brain structure was damaged in the accident?
a. reticular formation
b. cerebellum
c. medulla
d. hippocampus

C. Medulla
Controls breathing, life functions

What chemicals stored in terminal buttons allow transmission of nerve impulses between neurons?
a. hormones
b. neurotransmitters
c. enzymes
d. peptides

B. Neurotransmitters

Memories of the events of 9/11 as well as Hurricane Katrina and the Asian tsunami of 2005 are likely to be examples of what type of memory?
a. flashbulb memory
b. semantic memory
c. implicit memory
d. short-term memory

A. Flashbulb memory

While you were driving down a busy street, a child ran in front of your car. You slammed on the brakes and managed to avoid hitting him. Now your heart is racing, you are perspiring, and your stomach is doing "flip-flops." Which component of the nervous system controls these reactions?
a. central
b. sympathetic
c. somatic
d. parasympathetic

B. Sympathetic

Two groups of volunteers are involved in an experiment to test the effects of a new drug for treating insomnia. One group of participants is given the drug; the other group is given a pill that contains no medication but looks exactly like the one that contains the drug. What term is used to designate the participants who were given the "false" pill?
a. independent group
b. control group
c. experimental group
d. normal group

B. Control Group

Kitchen Depot, a major kitchen remodeling company, decides it wants to investigate factors that might influence consumers to remodel their kitchens. They randomly select 100 of their stores to take part in the proposed research. They investigate the effects of the presentation of the kitchen design plan (black and white versus color) and the type of music played in the stores (classic music versus modern jazz) on the total cost of kitchen remodeling contracts that are signed during a year. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this research.
a. The independent variables are presentation of the kitchen plans and type of music; the dependent variable is the cost of the signed contracts.
b. The independent variable is the cost of the kitchen projects; the dependent variables are the presentation of the kitchen plans and music.
c. The independent variable is the amount of money spent on the projects; the dependent variables are the presentation of the kitchen plans and music.
d. The independent variable is the presentation of the kitchen plan; the dependent variable is the type of music.

A.The independent variables are presentation of the kitchen plans and type of music; the dependent variable is the cost of the signed contracts.

Albert Bandura hypothesized that children who observed an adult behaving aggressively would be more likely to exhibit aggressive actions. In his experiment __________ was the independent variable and _________ was the dependent variable.
a. number of times a Bobo doll was hit; observing an aggressive or nonaggressive model
b. observing an aggressive or nonaggressive model; number of hits directed at a Bobo doll
c. number of times the child yelled at an adult; whether the child was abused
d. whether the child was abused; number of times the child yelled at an adult

B. Observing an agressive or nonaggressive model; number of hits directed at a Bobo doll.

The notion that music can influence mood is widely held. Several psychologists decide to put this idea to an experimental test. What would happen to the participants in the control and experimental groups?
a. Both groups would be asked to make ratings of the songs they typically hear on the radio.
b. The control group would give ratings of their mood; the experimental group would select music they want to hear.
c. Both the control and experimental groups would hear the same type of music.
d. The control group would hear no music; the experimental group would listen to music.

D. the control group would hear no music; the experimental group would listen to music

A group of college students is taking part in an interesting experiment. While they are exposed to one of three different odors, they are asked to learn a list of words. Later, the researcher checks their recall in sessions in which the odor is either present or not. What is this research likely to reveal about the process of memory?
a. Memory improved in cases in which the odor was pleasant; unpleasant odors had a negative effect on memory.
b. The effect of the odor was highly variable; in some cases it improved memory and in others it decreased memory in ways the investigators could not understand.
c. The presence of an odor, regardless of which one, tended to have a distracting effect because participants did not know whether to direct their attention to the source of the odor or the material to be learned.
d. When participants were exposed to the same odor during learning and memory trials, memory improved.

D. When participants were exposed to the same odor during learning and memory trials, memory improved.

A researcher is investigating the effects of meditation on stress levels. Identify the independent and dependent variables in this experiment.
a. The dependent variable is stress levels; the independent variable is meditation.
b. The dependent variable is meditation; the independent variable is exercise.
c. The independent variable is relaxation levels; the dependent variable is meditation.
d. The independent variable is amount of stress; the dependent variable is meditation.

A. The dependent variable is stress levels; the independent variable is meditation.

Which example represents deep processing?
a. attending to the sound of a word
b. thinking about the meaning of a word
c. repeating a word aloud ten times
d. looking at the shapes of the letters in a word

B. Thinking about the meaning of a word

Which part of your nervous system controls the act of writing the answer to this question on an answer sheet?
a. sympathetic
b. autonomic
c. somatic
d. parasympathetic

C. Somatic

Which of these is the best description of the use of inferential statistics?
a. procedure for determining if differences are due to chance or non-chance factors
b. method for summarizing a large amount of data with a few numbers
c. procedure used to explain the relationship between two variables
d. method used to determine the practical importance of research findings

A. Procedure for determining if differences are due to chance or non-chance factors.

How do researchers ensure that groups of participants are equal before they begin an experiment?
a. They randomly assign participants to groups.
b. They measure the dependent variable repeatedly.
c. They assign participants who have identified themselves as having control of extraneous variables.
d. They use independent variables that are correlated with extraneous variables.

A. They randomly assign participants to groups.

Haloperidol (Haldol) is effective in treating some psychological disorders by blocking the action of dopamine. Thus, we can describe haloperidol as a(n)
a. dopaminergic catalyst.
b. antagonist.
c. agonist.
d. tricyclic.

B. Antagonist

After reading the case of Ted Bundy, a serial killer, several students discussed the advantages and disadvantages of case studies in psychological research. What conclusions might they reach?
a. Case studies can provide a wealth of detail but the information may not be applicable to other individuals.
b. Case studies are easy to conduct but they are not good sources of research ideas.
c. Case studies are the primary research method used by psychologists because they provide cause-and-effect conclusions.
d. Case studies are used only for abnormal behavior and thus have limited use in studying the kinds of behavior that are of interest to most psychologists.

A. Cases studies can provide a wealth of detail but the information may not be applicable to other individuals.

A stroke left Dan unable to speak. A neurologist suspects that damage occurred in Dan's
a. left frontal lobe.
b. left parietal lobe.
c. right temporal lobe.
d. right occipital lobe.

A. Left frontal lobe.

The correlation between scores on a measure of hostility and age at death is -.50. What could we conclude from this correlation coefficient?
a. People with high hostility scores live longer.
b. People who have low hostility scores die 50 percent sooner than those with high hostility scores.
c. People who have high hostility scores die younger.
d. People who have low hostility scores die younger.

C. People who have high hostility cores die younger.

Which example represents a negative correlation?
a. the larger your car engine, the lower your gas mileage
b. the higher the outside temperature, the higher your air conditioning bill
c. the higher your SAT score, the higher your GPA
d. the more days you are present in class, the higher your grades

A. The larger your car engine, the lower your gas mileage.

What phenomenon is evident in the fact that it is more difficult for Heidi to remember her old phone number as time passes since she moved?
a. memory curve
b. free recall curve
c. serial position curve
d. curve of forgetting

D. Curve of forgetting

Why can psychology be described as a science?
a. Psychologists conduct research on humans and animals.
b. Psychologists conduct research in laboratories.
c. Psychologists uncover the causes of events by systematically collecting empirical evidence.
d. Psychologists use methods such as introspection and psychoanalysis.

C. Psychologists uncover the causes of events by systematically collecting empirical evidence.

Which of these is the most accurate definition of the discipline of psychology today?
a. science of behavior and mental processes
b. science of human behavior and mental processes
c. science of behavior
d. science of mental processes

A. Science of behavior and mental processes

While walking down the street you step on something, which turns out to be a wallet. What sequence of components of the nervous system was involved as you realized that you stepped on something and then picked it up?
a. efferent nerves, spinal cord, afferent nerves
b. afferent nerves, brain, efferent nerves
c. brain, afferent nerves, efferent nerves
d. spinal cord, efferent nerves, afferent nerves

B. Afferent nerves, brain, efferent nerves

When asked to name the anchor for NBC Nightly News, Donna says she knows the name, but cannot produce it. Donna's failure to recall the name is an example of
a. eidetic imagery.
b. procedural memory failure.
c. semantic networking.
d. tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

D. Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

A young man was referred to a neurosurgeon after his frequent bouts of aggression could not be explained or controlled. Sophisticated diagnostic tests found an inoperable tumor. What is the likely location of the tumor?
a. corpus callosum
b. amygdala
c. pons
d. basal ganglia

B. Amygdala

Alice is studying the following subjects in order: geography, sociology, and psychology. Which of these illustrates proactive interference?
a. Her performance on recall items on all tests exceeds her recognition performance.
b. When taking the psychology test, material from geography and sociology keeps coming to mind.
c. She recalls sociology material when trying to answer geography test questions.
d. She is able to use the same retrieval cues for all three subjects.

B. When taking the psychology test, material from geography and sociology keeps coming to mind.

Research participants are entitled to know and agree to the nature of research and the requirements of participation according to the concept of
a. impartiality.
b. full participation.
c. informed consent.
d. confidentiality.

C. Informed consent.

What implication can be drawn from the work of Elizabeth Loftus concerning people's memory for slides depicting a car wreck?
a. Careful questioning can help us recall information we thought we had forgotten.
b. We are very accurate in encoding speed.
c. Our high confidence in our memories is reflected in the accuracy of our recall.
d. Questions that are inconsistent with what we have seen can alter our memories.

D. Questions that are inconsistent with what we have seen can alter our memories.

The drug physostigmine improves the performance of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Therefore physostigmine would be classified as a(n)
a. agonist.
b. neuromodulator.
c. antagonist.
d. opioid peptide.

A. Agonist.

A split-brain patient is asked to stare at a spot on a screen. The word base appears to the left of the spot; the word ball appears to the right of the spot. What will the patient say he saw?
a. I see the word baseball.
b. I see the word ball.
c. I see the word base.
d. I cannot see anything at all.

B. I see the word ball.

Which of these is a likely effect of damage to the hypothalamus?
a. reduced ability to reason
b. disruption of appetite
c. development of aphasia
d. insomnia

B. Disruption of appetite.

Which of these is the most accurate description of what occurs when a neural impulse moves down the length of a neuron?
a. sudden decrease in hormone levels
b. sudden release of endorphins
c. exchange of ions
d. increase in pressure

C. Exchange of ions

*Seizer disorders may be associated with this neurotransmitter.
a. dopamine
b. serotonin
c. GABA
d. norepinephrine

C. GABA

*Many drugs used to treat depression work to try to increase the amount of this neurotransmitter in the synapse.
a. dopamine
b. serotonin
c. GABA
d. norepinephrine

B. Serotonin

*Many recreational drugs (such as cocaine or amphetamines) have an effect on this neurotransmitter which results in intense feelings of pleasure.
a. dopamine
b. serotonin
c. GABA
d. norepinephrine

A. dopamine

*This neurotransmitter appear to be influential in many anxiety disorders such as panic attack and PTSD
a. dopamine
b. serotonin
c. GABA
d. norepinephrine

D. norepinephrine

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