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Chapter 3

The molecule transmits hereditary information

nucleic acid

Which of the following molecules is not grouped with the lipids?

glycogen

the tertiary structure of proteins is typified by the:

three-dimensional shape of an individual polypeptide chain

All the following molecules are proteins except...

CELLULOSE

Which one of the following carbohydrates is the most structurally complex?

a polysaccharide

The major function(s) of proteins includes

catalyzing chemical reactions.
controlling the expression of genes
strengthening and protecting cells and tissues.
used to transport substances across the cell membrane.

Which of the following statements best summarizes the differences between RNA and DNA?

DNA comprises the genes, while RNA is a direct participant in the process of protein synthesis

Which property of the carbon atom give its compatibility with a greater number of different elements than any other type of atom?

Carbon has a valence of 4

At which level of protein structure are disulfide bonds important.

tertiary

Which is the best description of a carbonyl group?

a carbon atom joined to an oxygen atom by a double bond.

which of the following statements is false?

DNA does not normally contain a phosphate group.

All the following molecules are proteins except

cellulose

Which of the following is responsible for the alpha-helical structure of proteins?

hydrogen bonds

The major difference between a structural lipid, such as those in cell membranes, and a storage fat is the fact that the structural lipid:

most commonly contains phosphate

Which statement is false about hydrocarbons?

Hydrocarbons are hydrophilic due to carbon-hydrogen bonds

Which of the following statements concerning saturated fats is correct?

They have no double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids.

Which of the following illustrates condensation?

the reaction of two monosaccharides to forma disaccharide.

Human saliva contains enzymes that hydrolyze starch. If a baby chews up a cracker, what is the starch broken down into the baby's mouth?

glucose

The hydrolysis of triacyglycerol will yield:

three fatty acids and one glycerol

All of the following bases are found in DNA except:

uracil

An amphipathic molecule has:

a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic portion

In the double helix structure of nucleic acids, cytosine will form hydrogen bonds with

guanine

A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant functional group. Which of the following statements is true concerning this compound?

It should dissolve in water

There are 20 different amino acids in the proteins that make up the tissues of living organisms. The primary difference between these amino acids is in their

R or variable groups

A chemist wishes to make an organic molecule less basic. Which of the following functional gorups should she add to the molecule?

carboxyl

Which of these is not a formula for a monosaccharide

C9H18O9

Which of these statements is false concerning the caroteniods?

They are hydrophilic molecules.

A biological molecule with six carbons, five hydroxyl groups, and an aldehyde or ketone group is classified as a(n)

monosaccharide

The difference between a hexose and a pentose is that

a hexose always has six carbons, but a pentose always has five carbons

Plants store excess glucose in the form of ____ in structures called ______.

cellulose; amyloplasts

This functional group is weakly basic because it can accept an H+ ion:

amino

Regulatory Proteins:

control the expression of specific genes

Glycosidic linkages would be formed during condensation reactions that produce:

polysaccahrides

Analysis of a certain complex compounds shows that it contains phosphate groups, deoxyribose groups, and purines. Based on the information, which of the following is the best description of this compound?

It is DNA

One major function of lipids includes:

serving as hormones

Proteins with alpha helical forms exhibit this property:

elasticity

The chemical interactions of large hydrocarbons are largely determined by:

their functional groups

Which monomer is incorrectly matched with the corresponding polymer?

Amino acids are used to build polysaccharides

Which of the following are most directly arranged from DNA structure?

polypeptides

In which of the following reactions must the equivalent of a water molecule be added in order to break a bond?

cellulose=glucose

The exoskeletons of arthropods are formed from the structural polysaccharide

chitin

Which of the following statements is true of protiens?

proteins lose some or all of their normal activity if their three-dimensional structure is disrupted

Which of these carbohydrates is a disaccharide?

sucrose

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