American Heritage Final Exam part 1 of 3

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Chapters 1-5 (and appendix A) Key people and terms and readings

sovereignty

ultimate political power-having the final say

arete

greek form of human virtue. The backbone of republican morality. striving for excellence

Classical Republicanism

1/4 alt forms of gov. sees people (and gov) as mostly good, but corruptible sand so gov shouldhave restricted power and try to encourage a good moral climate

Libertarianism

1/4 alt forms of gov. Human nature us variable, but individual freedom should be the goal of gov

autocracy

1/4 alt forms of gov. Sees ppl as children that are un need of a carefully controlled enivroment provided by the gov

liberalism

1/4 alt forms of gov. Gov protects ppl form corrupt instituions

human perdicament

cycle from tyranny to anarchy, to wich soverign power and it's ill effects give rise (tyranny---rev---anarchy---competing groups---tyranny)

political legitamacy

ruling by a sanction higher than stark necessity (divine right, consent, ect)

aristocracy

ruled based on distinguished or wise ancestors and heritage

social compact

group of autnonomous people living in a state of nature, making acommon agreement about the sort of politcal world they would live in

tyranny

absolute power centralized in one person or small group (part of the human perdicament circle)

good society

reasonably stable and prosperous society without an opressive tyranny. usually includes peace,respect,vibrant culture, and personal freesom to live the way one chooses

human nature

fundemental disposition of humans that determines their behavior

plato

greek philosopher. Extolled civic virture and the necessity of virtue (AKA arete)

Greek Freedom

the privilage of taking part in the politcal process

Eruo Enlightenment

individual self intrest vs greek virtue or christian humilty = the motive for human behavior

State of nature

no gv, absolute freedom, general equality

Thomas Jefferson

3rd pres. Dec of In. Promoted classical Rep and liberalism, seperation of church and state.

Jeffery R Holland "A promised Land"

America is a scared place that the Lord has consecrated for a noble purpose

corporate communities

Colonial settlements established for economic or financial purposes by various companies. Although usually chartered by the Crown, their remote circumstances helped foster the idea and practice of self-governance

the christian calling

From the theology of John Calvin- people should pursue a "calling" in some sort of worldly work where they are to rise early in the morning, work hard, save their money, and invest it wisely. Prosperity indicates God's approval.

puritians

wanted to reformt he church of england.
Christian calling, moral self-governance, being god'es elect

civil liberty

According to John Winthrop, "Where men were free to do only that which is good, just, and honest."

God's elect

From John Calvin's predestination theology, the doctrine that God has already chosen those who will be saved. These elect people are to build a holy community as an example.

John Calvin

Greatly influenced puritan beliefs. Bible is the final authority for matters of faith, salvations come through grace (not works), predestination.

John Winthrop

Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Instrumental in forming the colony's government/shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

Founding myths

describes how a city, civilazation, or culture was started. "In America, a poor boy can go from rags to riches."

John Rolfe

Cultivated tabacoo as a profitable agricultural enterprise. Married Pocohantas

Roberts Brown

Demanded seperation from the church of England. His writting inspired the pilgrims to emigrate to USA for religious freedom

"city upon a hill"

John Winthrop's idea of a community that was governed by civil liberty (ppl only do that which is good and right) that would would an example to the world

pilgrims

Wanted to distance themselves from the church of England which is why the emigrated

natural liberty

men are free to do what the please without reguard for morals

moral self-governance

puritain belief in universal standards of right and wrong. All were to live a rightous life and do so on their own...responsible for themselves and their family, with an eye on their neighbor as well
*no penal system other than public humiliation so law and order was basically up to the individual

covenant communities

settlements based on religious or moral values, mostly interested in being an example to Europe or living according to their own moral liberty

mayflower compact

It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.

cotton mather "A christian and his calling"

Every Christian should be engaged in some form of work in order to glorify god until they are unable to work.

"Indeed a man cannot live without the help of other men. But how can a man reasonably look for the help of other men, if he be not in some calling helpful to other men?"

Men should find a calling that plasy to their strengths, and no one should be ashamed of their calling.

john winthrop "a model of christian charity"

"some must be rich, some poor, some high and eminent in power and dignity; others mean and in subjection" so God can show forth his power, and that "every man might have need of others"

"Duty of mercy...giving,lending,mercy"

Body analogy "all true chrisians are ofone body in christ...we must be knit together, in this work, as one man"

lockean Liberty

Not freedom to partcipate in gov, but rathe rthe freedom of indivdules to live their lives without interference. Freedom from society

common law

conisdered to be a form of natural law principles framed in precedents set by an earlier courts. It was the primary form of law in england

due process

laws must be administered impartially

prospectivity

Rule of law principle that states laws must apply to future action and not past action

country party

English opposition to the "Court party" that consisted of commonwealth men (everyday citizens). The Country party was considered morally independent with pure motives

glorious revolution

bloodless revolution in England, making hte king subject to parliment...consideres a true founding of government

publicity

laws must be made known to the public

whigs

Englan'ds 1st politcal party organzised in opposition to the King

tories

a person who supported the British cause in the American Revolution; a loyalist

generality

laws must apply to broad group of ppl, not single certain groups out

commonwealth ideaology

the idea that hte country party had the best stratedgy and oppertunity to preserve liberty against the court party

Natural law

moral law that resides in the human heart. The law refelects human's innate sense of right and wrong. Protects natural rights
Ex: natural right to life so there is a natural law that you don't murder

Rule of Law

a set of metalegal principles developed by the english legal system as a way of distinguishing whether a particular law supported freedom or not

Court party/ Tories

English royal court and the center of British political power; characterized by corruption and subversion

John Adams

unequivocal belief in the importance of the rule of law led him to defend the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre. His defense demonstrated to the world that the colonists were civilized and could therefore govern themselves

Montesquieu

political thinker who favored the British system of rule and lauded the idea of separation of powers

John Locke

English Philosopher whose Treatises of Government espousing natural rights; consent of the governed, and social compacts greatly influenced the Founding Fathers

Second Treatise

John Locke's work arguing that true political authority comes not through God or precedent but from the people.

Bejamin Costant "The liberty of the ancients compared with that of the moderns"

Ancient liberty ment the liberty to participate in politics. They had very little individul liberty though becuase they were subject to the will of the whole. In modern liberty our influence in the politcal process is not as great and much more satisfaction is found in indivdual liberties

Micheal Mulane "the Rule of Law"

Tinkerbelle effect: the rule of law only exist as long as we believe in it
"The law is wonderfully strong and terribly fragile" In times of crisis we may through it out the window (ex: WWII Japanese inprisonment)

John Wnithrop "little speech on liberty"

1.When you see weakness in the leaders you have chosen, you should reflect upon your own weaknesses since you chose them.

2.The magistrates try to govern and judge as best they as can according to God's laws, as well as our own.

3.If the magistrate's error is clearly out of wickedness, he must be held accountable for his transgressions. However, if it is not clear that then the people, who have a covenant with their leaders, need to bear the consequences of the error
4. Natural liberty vs civil: Liberty to do what you want vs. it is a liberty to that only which is good, just, and honest.
-This liberty is maintained and exercised in a way of subjection to authority; it is of the same kind of liberty wherewith Christ hath made us free.
5. The best way to preserve our civil liberties is to uphold and honor authority.

Adam Smith

1723-1790 Scottish philosopher and economist who wrote The Wealth of Nations. He is considered the father of modern economics

Roles of money

money facilitates exchange by eliminating the necessity for a "coincidence of wants," functioning as a generally acceptable medium for exchange

mercantilism

an economic theory that emphasized the importance of stockpiling gold and silver to the economic power of the nation. Mercantilists regulated the economy by encouraging exports and restricting imports

captialism

the philosophy of a free market economy in which the government serves only to create an acceptable environment in which to make exchanges

Market Economy

an economic model advanced by Adam Smith in which the forces of individual self-interest regulate the economy. This self-regulation eliminates the need for most government interventions

Coincidence of wants

when two parties each possess something desired by the other, promoting and exchange

Perfect competition

when buyers and sellers have no influence on price and terms of exchange

Collusion

when sellers are conspiring to maintain a high prices and avoid competition with one another

Law of Supply

as the price of a particular good or service rises, suppliers will produce more of that good or service

Law of Demand

As the price of a particular good or service rises, individuals will but less of that good or service

Role of prices

in a market economy, prices determine the quantity of goods supplied.

Role of profits

in a market economy, as profits increase, the number of suppliers and resources for making that good will increase

The invisible hand

Adam Smith's term for the natural self-regulation of a market economy driven by self-interest and efficiency

Equilibrium price

the price at which the amount demanded is equal to the amount of supplied

Role of Gov in a free market Economy

1. prevent cohersion or fraud
2.provide money
3. provide infrastructure (commun and transpotation)
4. define prop rights
5. enforce exchange agreements

Laissez-faire

Policy in which there is little or no interference with exchange, trade, or market prices by the government

oppertunity cost

the value of the best alternative not chosen

Markets

Division of the economy that specialize in certain goods or services

equity

goal of eco systems to distribute goods and rewards fairly

Navigation acts

Economic regulations passed by British Parliament to enforce trade regulations in the colonies; all trade had to go through British or colonial merchants and be shipped in British or colonial ships with the end goal to generate large exports from England, with few imports, so that gold and silver would flow in the motherland

economic system

structure for making and distibuting goods and services

freedom (economy)

goal of economy is to preserve liberites of people

efficeinet economy

all benifits are maximized to the point that one cnnot increase their benifits without decreasing the benifits of others

Command system

An economic system in which the allocation of resources is heavily controlled by government instead of free market forces

law of comparitive advantage

producers specialize in the production of good where they will have the lowest oppertunity cost

Adam Smith "The Wealth of Nations"

book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith that criticized mercantilism and proposed a free market economy in which the "invisible hand" determined prices

Committees of correspondence

groups organized by local colonial governments for the purpose of coordinating written communication with the other colonies. They disseminated the colonial interpretation of British actions among the colonies and to foreign governments. The network of committees would later provide the basis for formal political union among the colonies

Patrick Henry

1736-1799 Best known for his famous "Give me liberty, or give me death" speech in the Virginia House of Burgess, Henry was an Anti-Federalist who pushed for a bill of rights to be added to the Constitution after its ratification

Continental Congress

A body of representatives from the British North American colonies who met to respond to England's Intolerable Acts. The declared independence in July 1776 and later drafted the Articles of Confederation

Thomas Paine

1737-1809 Was an English intellectual, scholar, revolutionary, deist and idealist, who spent much of his time in America and France. A radical pamphleteer, he helped foment the American Revolution through his powerful writings, most notably Common Sense

Common Sense

A political tract written by Thomas Paine that helped convince colonists about the necessity to fight against Britain and to become independent

George Washington

1732-1799 led America's Continental Army to victory over Britain in the Revolutionary War and was the first President of the U.S, from 1789-1797. Because of his central role in the founding of the United States, he is often call the "Father of his Country."

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