Pre-AP World History Fall Final Review

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Neolithic Age

Also known as The New Stone Age. Began around 8000 B.C. , The New stone age which went from about 8000 B.C to 3000 B.C. People who lived during this learned to polish stone tools, make pottery, grow crops, and raise animals. When society settled down and had permanent dwellings.

Artifact

Remains, such as tools, jewelry, and other human-made object, that are used by scientist in order to learn more about the past.

Characteristics of a civilization

1. advanced cities 2. specialized workers 3. complex institutions 4. record keeping 5.advanced technology

Fertile crescent

Also known as Mesopotamia which is located between the Tigris and Euphrates river. This was the first early river civilization. The cities in this area were governed by city-states by a monarchy. It was polytheistic. It has unpredictable flooding. They were the first to create a written language(cuneiform), used bronze, plows, irrigation, wheel, sail, and currency. The women could do anything except own land.

Hammurabi's code

Used by the fertile crescent river valley, established high standars of behavior and stern punishments for violators; civil laws regulated mostly everything such as wages dealings and relationships, created by King Hammurabi

Pyramids

Immense structures that was a tomb for kings. used in the Egyptian river valley

Dynasty

Series of rulers from a single family. Chinese dynasty in order... Shang Zhou Chin Han Sui Tang Song Yuan Ming Qing Republic Mao Zedong

Theocracy

Type of government where the ruler is a define figure. Egypt had a theocracy

Nile River

the longest river in the world; the Ancient Egyptians depended upon it for survival. flows northward for 4100 miles

Mummification

Egyptians way to preserve a dead body by embalming and drying the corpse to prevent it from decaying.

Papyrus

Reeds that grew in the marshy delta. Used by Egyptians for paper.

Menes

king of upper egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt

Indus Valley Civilization

2500 - 1750 BC; Depended on the Indus and Ganges rivers.Had predictable flooding because of monsoons.Had the first carefully planned cities with sophisticated plumbing. Historians don't know a lot about them because they cant read the writing.

River Valleys of China

2000 - 1500 BC; Depended on the Yellow and Yangtze river. Used dynasty, ancestor worship, Mandate of heaven, and feudalism. First to use silk, coined money, and iron.

Caste system

a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society

Varnas

The social divisions of the caste system that included from top to bottom: 1)priests (Brahmins), 2) rulers or warriors(Kyshatryas); 3) farmers, craftspeople, traders(Vaisyas); 4) workers and servants (Sudras); 5) Untouchables

Hinduism

Collection of religious beliefs. Teachings - Vedas and Upanishads. Began in ancient times on the Indian subcontinent. Main teachings are Moksha,reincarnation, karma, and the caste system

Moksha

Achievement of perfect understanding in Hinduism.

Untouchables

Most impure group of people that was so impure that they lived below the caste system stuck with the undesired jobs

Buddhism

a religion, originated in India by Buddha (Gautama) and later spreading to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of southeast Asia, holding that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment that enables one to halt the endless sequence of births and deaths. They try to reach enlightenment by following the 4 noble truths; which is the principle that everything is suffer that is caused by desire. the only way to escape is to reach enlightenment.

Karma

good or bad deeds. Practiced by Hinduism people.

Nirvana

Release from selfishness and pain

Siddhartha Gautama

Also known as Buddha. born as a Kshatriya. about 537 BC Siddhartha left his birthplace of Nepal area

Torah

First 5 books of the Hebrew Bible. Considered most sacred writings in Jewish tradition

Monotheism

Belief in 1 God. First 3 monotheistic religions were Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Solomon

Son of David, most powerful of Hebrew kings. Built Jerusalem and temple to hold the Ark of the Temple in order to glorify God.in order to do this he had to raise taxes and labor.

Moses

The man who led the Hebrews out of slavery. He received the 10 commandments from God.

Covenant

The mutual promise between God and the founder of the Hebrew people. The first was God promised that he would protect Abraham and his descendants.

Assyrians

known as a warrior people who ruthlessly conquered neighboring countries; their empire stretched from east to north of the Tigris River all the way to centeral Egypt; used ladders, weapons like iron-tipped spears, daggers and swords, tunnels, and fearful military tactics to gain strength in their empire

Chaldeans

One of Assyria's enemies that combined with Medes to demolish Nineveh, Assyrian's capitol.

Nebuchadnezzar

The most famous Chaldean king who rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city whose palace featured the famous Hanging Gardens which were trees and flowers that grew on its terraces and roofs that, from the ground, seemed to hang in the air.

Persians

an empire based on tolerence and diplomacy; relied on a strong military to back up their policies, Indo-European who lived in now what is called Iran, Became one of the largest empires of the time.

Zoroaster

a Persian prophet, lived around 600 B.C. taught that the 2 spiritual armies fought for one's soul; the god of truth and light, Ahura Mazda, and the god of evil and darkness, Ahriman, founder of Zoroastrianism

Cyrus

Persian king that expanded the Persian empire greatly. He was also a very kind and tolerant king. He also allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem.

Darius

Successor after Cambyses, Cyrus son. He is responsible for the expansion of Persia. He made a province in western India and expanded Persia as far north as Macedonia. His only failure was his incapability to conquer Greece

Confucius

China's most influential scholar. born in 551 BC started at the end of Zhou dynasty. philosopher who believed that social order, harmony, education and good government could be organized around 5 basic relationships, filial piety. He founded Confucianism through filial piety. practiced by Han dynasty.

Polis

City-state. Fundamental political unit of Greece because of the geography of the region.

Greek geography

Consisted mainly of mountainous peninsulas jutting out into the Mediterranean sea which cause lack of farmland and division of Greece. Many islands. Aegean, Ionian, and the Black sea were important because Sea- allowed travel to become easy. The Climate- Moderate temperatures

Mycenaeans

Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.; leading city called Mycenae which could withstand any attack; nobles lived in splendor; these people invaded many surrounding kingdoms; fought in Trojan war with the city of Troy.

Dorians

A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization. Not very advanced; economy fell, trade came to a standstill, and forgot how to write.

Homer

Bind man who composed epics, like the Illiad and Odyssey.

Trojan war

Mycenaeans (Greeks) vs. Troy. Trojan Prince kidnapped Helen, wife of the Mycenaen's king. Fictional cause of war; Greeks won when they tricked the Trojans with the Trojan Horse. Historians believe that they actually fought over land or something else.

Xerxes

son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece by sea in 480 B.C. and was defeated.

Oligarchy

Government ruled by few powerful people.

Monarchy

Ruled by kings or monarchs (Ex: River Valley-Civilizations.)

Aristocracy

Ruled by small groups of nobles, land owning families.

Phalanx

Fighting formation where foot soldiers, hoplites, stood side by side holding a spear in 1 hand and a shield in the other hand.

Solon

Athenian leader that abolished debt slavery and freed slaves. limited land allowed to be owned, extended citizenship, allowed all to participate in the Athenian assembly, and allowed everyone to press charges against wrong doers. But he neglected land reforms.

Sparta

Greek city-state in the southern part of Greece that is also known as Peloponnesus. Ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts

Helots

Peasants forced to work on land, kind of like a slave. Sparta forced conquered people to be helots. (Ex: Messenians)

Direct democracy

Form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.

Pericles

Athenian wise and able statesman who led Athens to its golden age. Skillful politician, inspiring speaker, and a respected general. His 3 goals were to 1) strengthen Athenian democracy, 2) hold and strengthen the empire, and 3) glorify Athens.

Draco

Athenian lawmaker whose code included unfair practices of debt slavery. This made Athens upset

Cleisthenes

An aristocrat, created a council of 500 and helped form Athenian democracy

Socrates

Greek philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method

Plato

Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society. Was also the teacher of Aristotle

Aristotle

Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic where he profoundly influenced Western thought.

Aristophanes

Wrote the first great comedies of the stage, including The Birds and Lysistrata.

Parthenon

Masterpiece of craftsmanship and design. Temple was built to honor the Goddess Athena. Located in Athens.

Classical art

Art that values order, balance, and proportion.

Peloponnesian war

War between Athens and Sparta in 431BC. After 27 years of war Athens surrender.

Macedonia

Kingdom north of Greece, ruled by Phillip II and Alexander the Great that conquered Greece and the Persian empire in the 300s BC

Phillip II

The father of Alexander the Great; A king of Macedonia. Created a great army for Macedonia, that conquered Greece.

Alexander the Great

King of Macedonia; son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and Persia; goal was to conquer the known world

Hellenistic period

Blending between Greek culture with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences. Important advances in math, science, and philosophy.

Ptolemy

ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe

Archimedes

Scientist that estimated the value of pi. Explained law of the lever and invented the compound pulley to lift heavy objects.

Etruscans

Native people to Italy. Skilled metal workers and engineers. Romans adopted their writing system and their religion.

Roman law

Written on 12 tablets, or tables, that hung in the Forum. All free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.

Republic

Form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote to select their leaders.

Legion

Large Roman military units that consisted of 5,000 foot soldiers.

Punic wars

War between Rome and Carthage. They only fought 3 wars. 1) for control of Sicily. ending with the defeat of Carthage, 2) Hannibal wanted revenge so he led a surprise attack on Rome by going through the Alps. They attacked Rome leaving devastating results for Rome. Then Scipio matched Hannibal's strength and pushed him back to his home city, 3) Rome attacks Carthage and succeeds

Julius Caesar

Ambitious and daring leader that emerged to bring order to Rome. He was in a triumvirate with 2 other men. He was the governor of Gaul. He later split the triumvirate and he named himself dictator for life. Later his senators killed him.

Triumvirate

Group of 3 rulers. First one was with Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus

Gospels

The main source of Jesus' life and teachings. The first 4 books of the new testament

Constantine

312 AD he became Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians because he saw a sign at the battle at Milvian Bridge.

Christ

Also means Messiah or Savior in Greek.

Peter

One of the first apostles, that spread the teachings of Jesus throughout Palestine and Syria.

Paul

Also known as Saul. He spread Christ's teaching throughout Rome during the Pax Romana.

Pax romana

Time of peace which made it safe to travel and trade. This made the perfect condition to spread ideas as well.

Germanic peoples

Attached by Huns in Asia so was forced to move Westward into Europe. (Ex: Franks, Burgundians, and Vandals)

Huns

Fierce Mongol nomads from central Asia. They attacked Germanic tribes forcing them to leave and go to Rome.

Alaric

king of the Visigoths who captured Rome in 410. Plundered it for 3 days.

Fall of Rome

contributing factors to this event include: military interference in politics, civil war and unrest, moving the capital and division of the empire, low confidence, disloyalty, contrast between rich and poor, poor harvests, gold and silver drain, inflation, and threat of attack; immediate causes were pressure from Huns, invasion by Germanic tribes and by Huns, sack of Rome, and conquest by invaders

Virgil

Poet whose most famous Latin Literature is the Aeneid.

Romance Languages

Mix between Latin and Germanic tribes languages

Aqueduct

Roman design to bring water into cities and towns.

Bas-relief

low-relief images project from a flat background. Used to to tell stories and to represent crowds of people, soldiers in battle, and landscapes.

Pompeii

Best Roman painting are found here. 79 AD Mount Vesuvius erupted, covering Pompeii in a thick layer of ash killing many people.

Roman religion

they worshipped the major gods and goddesses of Greece, although they gave them Latin names.

Brahma

God who created the world according to Hinduism

Vishnu

God; preserver of the world according to Hinduism

Civil Service System

the practice of hiring goverment workers by civilians taking examinations

Silk

a valuable cloth, originally made only in china from threads spun by silkworms. Also before paper, Chinese used it to write on.

Muhammad

the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632) Angel Gabriel talked to him in a dream

Mecca

Muhammad started preaching here about Islam. Considered their Holy city.

Qur'an

Holy book of the Muslims

Islam

Submission to the will of Allah

Muslim

One who has submitted

Five pillars

To be Muslim; all believers had to carry out these 5 duties. 1) faith- Must testify to "there is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah", 2) Pray 5 times a day facing toward Mecca, 3) Alms- 10% of their yearly income to charity, 4) fasting- Must fast during Ramadan, 5) Pilgrimage- make Hijrah to Mecca at least once.

Shari'a

The body of laws Muslims live by. Regulates family life, moral conduct, and business and community life of Muslims. Brings religious matter and civil matters together.

Caliph

Title that means "Successor" or "Deputy". Abu-Bakr became the first in 632. The next ones were Umar, Uthman, and Ali

Abbasids

Took over the Umayyads in 750 because they were straying from the Muslim traditions and culture. Capital was Baghdad. They had a strong bureaucracy, controlled trade, and had a simple way of life

Medina

City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)

Calligraphy

The art of beautiful handwriting created by Muslims because drawing was prohibited.

"People of the book"

Jews and Christians.

Al-jabr

called algebra today

Astrolabe

Used by Muslims to measure the angles of the sun and stars above the horizon.

House of wisdom

A combination of library, academy, and translation center created by Caliph Al-Ma'mum in the early 800's

Justinian

Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia and the hippodrome, as well as a new legal code, the Justinian code.

Icons

Religious images used by eastern Christians to aid their devotion.

Cyrillic alphabet

An alphabet used by many Slavic languages during the ninth century.

Russian culture

Blending of Slavs, Byzantines, and Vikings people. Or a blending of Slavic and Greek tradition.

Slavs

People from the forests north of the Black Sea.

Czar

Russian version of Caesar.

Boyars

Nobles

Golden horde

Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia. Islam didn't spread until after Batu's death.

Movable type

Printer that could arrange blocks of individual characters in a frame to make up a page for printing. One of the great technological advances in the Tang and Song eras.

Chinese gentry

Scholar-officials and their families. Powerful and well-to-do people.Attained status through education and civil service positions.

Mongols

Nomadic people from the steppe. Split into different clans until Ghanghis Khan united them all to conquer more land.

Pastoralist

Nomadic people that herded domesticated animals

Genghis Khan

Real name is Temujin but took this name that means "Universal leader" after uniting the Mongol clans. He conquered much of Asia, and later spite it up into 4 khanates.

Kamakazi

"divine wind" This saved Japan from a Mongol attack.

Kublai Khan

Grandson of Ghengis Khan that assumed the title of the Great Khan in 1260. Founded the Yuan dynasty. He united China for the first time, opened China to greater foreign contacts and trade, and tolerated Chinese culture and made few changes to the system of the government

Ming

New dynasty formed after the Yuan dynasty. Some Mongols stayed in China during this time and were valued for their skill as calvarlymen. but others returned to their homeland on the Mongolian steppe.

Franks

Germanic people who lived and held power in Gaul. Their leader was Clovis and he would later bring Christianity to the region. By 511 the Franks had united into one kingdom and they controlled the largest and strongest parts of Europe.

Clovis

King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy

Charlemagne

Military leader who forced the people he mconquered to convert. First to be named Holy Roman Emperor. Crowned king by Pope.

Treaty of Verdun

Charlemagne's 3 grandsons split the empire.

Viking

Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavi by sea.

Serf

People who could not lawfully leave the place they were born

Tithe

Church tax that consumed one-tenth of a person's income.

Manor

Lord's estate

Chivalry

Complex set of ideals that knights had to follow

Troubador

Poet musicians at the castles and courts of Europe.

Song of Roland

One of the earliest and most famous mediecal epic poems.

Clergy

Religious officials

Lay investiture

Practice where kings appoint church officials

Sacrament

Rites to achieve salvation (Ex: Communion, babtism, etc...)

Canon law

Church law

Henry IV

Holy Roman Emperor, opposed the pope on the issue of lay investiture, he is excommunicated and ends up begging the pope for forgiveness

Fredrick I

Also was named Barbosa because of his red beard. He went to fight in a crusade and died on the crusade by drowning.

Concordat of Worms

States that only Church can appoint bishops but kings can veto that decision.

Francis of Assisi

1181-1226 Italian monk who founded the Franciscan order; he devoted his life to serving the poor and sick

Venerable Bede

English monk who wrote the history of England.

Simony

Practice of selling church positions

Inquisition

A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.

Reconquista

Drove anyone that was not Christian out of Spain.

Crusades

"Holy War" issued by Pope Urban II to aid their Christian comrades in Constantinople. Also to recapture Jerusalem.

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