Sociology Final Exam

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Two variables are said to display correlation if

they vary together

Which early sociologist claimed that his goal was not to simply understand society but to change it?

Karl Marx

Which of the following is NOT one of the defining traits of a cause-and-effect relationship?

Each variable must be shown to be independent of the other.

Which research method asks subjects to respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview?


Unlike simple stereotypes, sociological generalizations

are offered fair-mindedly with an interest in the truth.

Looking at the operation of U.S. schools, the social-conflict approach might lead a sociologist to conclude that

society provides much better schooling to some categories of students than to others.

Which early U.S. sociologist earned the first doctorate ever awarded by Harvard University to a person of color?

W. E. B. Du Bois

An example of an insight offered by social-exchange analysis is that

people typically seek mates who have about as much to offer as they do.

Which term refers to "a mental construct that represents some part of the world"?

a concept

It would be correct to say that critical sociology

seeks to increase social equality.

Sociology differs from earlier philosophy by focusing on

how society actually operates.

Which of the following phrases best describes the focus of the structural-functional approach?

the consequences of social patterns for the operation of society

Using which of the following methods would a researcher be most likely to reveal information about herself to her subjects?


If you were trying to measure the "social class" of various people, you would have to keep in mind that

it is necessary to specify exactly what you are measuring.

Which of the following theoretical approaches paints societies in broad strokes at a macro-level?

both the structural-functional and social-conflict approaches

By what process does a researcher determine the value of a variable?


In his study of prison behavior, Philip Zimbardo was trying to learn

if prisons themselves create violence.

Unrecognized and unintended consequences of the social structure are called

latent functions

Interpretive sociology is sociology that

focuses on the meaning people attach to behavior.

Critical sociology can best be described as

an activist approach.

The term Homo sapiens, the name of our species, comes from Latin, meaning

"thinking person."

Today, most immigrants to the United States arrive from

Latin America and Asia.

Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population are referred to as

popular culture.

The theoretical approach that highlights the link between culture and social inequality is the

social-conflict approach.

About __________ adults in the United States speak a language other than English at home.

55 million.

A Marxist analysis of U.S. culture suggests that our competitive and individualistic values reflect

this nation's capitalist economy.

The chapter-opening story of the diversity initiative at investment company Charles Schwab & Co. shows us that

learning more about cultural diversity can help a company boost sales.

Horticultural societies are those in which

people use simple hand tools to raise crops.

Which of the following concepts refers to the beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects that together constitute a people's way of life?


A century ago, most people who immigrated to the United States came from


The United States has now entered the __________ technological era.


The concept "cultural lag" refers to the fact that

some culture elements change more quickly than others.

Which of the following is true of hunting and gathering societies?

Population is small; people are nomadic.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about __________ different languages are spoken in the United States.


Compared to an industrial society, a postindustrial society is based on

an information-based economy.

In which region of the United States does the largest share of people speak a language other than English at home?


Read the list of values below. Which is NOT one of the values central to U.S. culture, as identified by the sociologist Robin Williams?

Belief in tradition.

A person who criticizes an Amish farmer as foolish or backward for tilling his fields using horses and a plow instead of a tractor is exhibiting


Which of the following statements about rock-and-roll as part of U.S. cultural history is CORRECT?

Rock-and-roll attracted both a black and white musical audience.

Which of the following most closely conveys the point of the Sapir-Whorf thesis?

People perceive the world through the culture lens of language.

Survey research suggests that the single most important factor in being defined an adult is

completing school.

__________ refers to efforts to radically change someone's personality through careful control of the environment.


The social sciences, including sociology, support the claim that

it is human nature to nurture.

The special contribution of schooling to the socialization process includes

exposing the child to people whose backgrounds differ from their own.

Which of the following concepts refers to an individual person's fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking, and feeling?


The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg's research was

moral reasoning.

In her research, Elisabeth Kübler-Ross found that death

is an orderly transition involving specific stages.

According to George Herbert Mead, children learn to "take the role of the other" as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these important people as

significant others.

In Freud's model of personality, the __________ represents the presence of culture within the individual.


The tragic case of Anna, the isolated girl studied by Kingsley Davis, shows that

without social experience, a child is incapable of thought or meaningful action.

Read the four statements below. All but one of them correctly identifies a distinctive characteristic of a total institution. Which one does NOT?

Staff members encourage individual growth and creativity.

In Freud's model of personality, the __________ represents a person's efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives and the demands of society.


Sociologists claim the main reason that many young people in the United States experience confusion during adolescence is

cultural inconsistency in defining this stage of life as partly childlike and partly adultlike.

According to Erving Goffman, the goal of a total institution is

to radically alter a person's personality or behavior.

An idea in Freud's thinking that has special importance to sociology is his assertion that

society demands that individuals become less self-centered.

In terms of human freedom, the chapter on socialization leads to the conclusion that

human beings are affected by society, but also creatively act back on society.

The elderly population of the United States has a poverty rate that is

below average for the population as a whole.

The text's discussion supports the conclusion that life-course stages

are linked to biology, but they are mostly defined by society.

The Harlows' research with rhesus monkeys, as well as cases of isolated children such as Anna, leads us to conclude that

long-term social isolation leads to permanent developmental damage in both monkeys and humans.

Which of the following concepts refers to the lifelong social experience by which human beings develop their potential and learn culture?


Women often take the family name of the man they marry. In sociological terms, this is an example of how language can be used to convey

power over others.

Harold Garfinkel's research, called "ethnomethodology," involves

studying the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.

"Nonverbal communication" refers to

body movements, gestures, and facial expressions.

According to Erving Goffman, people usually make efforts to __________ their intentions.


In what way do men and women typically differ in their use of space?

Men commonly try to control more space than women.

Which of the following concepts refers to a status that has very great importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life?

master status

The English language often treats as __________ whatever has greater value, greater power, or greater significance.


The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance is referred to as

Dramaturgical analysis.

The most important concept in Chapter 4 refers to the process by which people act and react in relation to others. This concept is

social interaction.

A physician who addresses a patient as "Jim" while expecting to be called "Doctor Watson" is probably trying to

define the situation in a way that gives the physician greater power.

According to Erving Goffman, our use of costumes, props, tone of voice, and gestures to convey information to others are all elements of a


In the United States, eye contact generally serves to

encourage interaction.

Cross-cultural research on human emotions shows that

what triggers an emotion differs from society to society.

__________ refers to the process by which people creatively shape their world as they interact.

Social construction of reality

Paul Ekman, who studied emotions in global perspective, claims that

emotions are fashioned by both biology and culture.

Joan is an excellent artist and enjoys her work, but feels she cannot devote enough time to her family. She is experiencing

role conflict.

The concept "presentation of self" refers to

efforts to create impressions in the minds of others.

What is the term for the tension among roles connected to a single status?

role strain

When interacting with people whose cultural background differs from our own, we find that

what is funny to people in one society is often lost on those from another society.

Family roles are generally more central to a person's identity

for people living in lower-income nations.

A __________ refers to a social group with two members.


Which leadership style focuses on instrumental concerns, making decisions, and ensuring group members obey orders?


The concept "bureaucracy" refers to

an organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.

What is Robert Merton's term for focusing so much on rules and regulations that the organization cannot accomplish its goals?

bureaucratic ritualism

Which type of group leader is likely to use humor to lighten a serious moment?

expressive leader

A __________ refers to a temporary, loosely formed collection of people who may or may not interact.


Stanley Milgram's research, in which subjects used a "shock generator," showed that

people are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only legitimate authority figures, but also ordinary individuals.

Which of the following concepts refers to a social group that commands a member's esteem and loyalty?


The __________ is every society's most important primary group.


Max Weber argued that formal organizations, while efficient, have the ability to

alienate people within them.

Which type of group leadership calls for more formal relationships with group members?

instrumental leadership

__________ refers to factors outside the organization that affect its operation.

Organizational environment

Passengers sitting in an airport gate area waiting to board a plane are an example of a


Formal organizations are

large secondary groups organized to achieve goals efficiently.

What trait has been described as a "female advantage"?

more willingness to ask questions and foster greater communication

Read the following four statements about social diversity and group dynamics. Which statement is NOT correct?

Large groups turn outward.

Jake is a member of the Bulldogs soccer team. His team's main rival is the Tigers. Members of the Bulldogs put down the Tigers all the time. To Jake, the Tigers represent

an out-group.

Which of the following is the best example of a primary group?

a family gathering for a religious holiday

In general, U.S. and Japanese formal organizations have differed in that

Japanese companies have a more collective culture; U.S. companies have a more individualistic culture.

A __________ refers to the weak social ties among people who have little common identity and little interaction.


Edwin Lemert described "primary deviance" as

a passing episode of deviance that has little effect on the person's self concept.

The one Western, high-income nation that routinely executes offenders convicted of serious crimes is

the United States.

In the United States, men account for about _______ of all arrests for violent crime.

82 percent.

Prostitution is widely regarded as on example of

victimless crime.

The Likelihood a person will be arrested for a street crime rises sharply

during the late teenage years.

Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory links deviance to

the amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage the behavior in question.

Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin extended Merton's theory of deviance by stating that crime

reflects not only limited legitimate opportunity but also accessible illegitimate opportunity.

According to Elliot Currie, factor that explain why the United States has a high crime rate by world standards include

an emphasis on individualism and economic success, which weakens families and neighborhoods.

Which justification of punishing criminals rests on using the threat of punishment to discourage further criminality?


When friends began to criticize Juan as a "boozer," pushing him out of their social circle, he became bitter and began to drink even more. Juan ended up joining a new group of friends, all of whom are all heavy drinkers. According to Edwin Lemert, this situation illustrates

the onset of secondary deviance.

The "Seeing Sociology in the News" article in Chapter 7 ("Deviance") claims that one factor that has pushed up the rate of crime, especially high-tech crime, is

the recent economic recession.

Read the following statements about the social foundation of deviance. Which statement is NOT correct?

Most acts that are deviant in one place are deviant everywhere.

Biological approaches offer

a very limited understanding of crime

"Crime" differs from "deviance" in that crime

is a violation of norms enacted into law.

Which of the following illustrates the "medicalization of deviance"?

A girl's sexual activity being redefined by her psychologist as a "sexual addiction"

Alexander Liazos speaks for the social-conflict approach when he states that

powerless people are at the highest risk of being defined as deviant.

______ is crime committed by persons of high social position in the course of doing their jobs.

White-collar crime

Monica steals a bicycle from a front lawn of a neighbor's home. This act is an example of which of the following criminal offenses?


Most criminal cases brought to court in the United States are resolved

through plea bargaining.

According to Robert Merton's strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes the behavior of a person who gets rich by committing fraud while working at a bank?


The wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the "super-rich") control about _______ of the nation's privately held wealth.

35 percent

_________ refers to change in social position during a person's lifetime.

Intragenerational social mobility

A fair criticism of the Davis-Moore thesis is the fact that

it is not so easy to assess the social importance of various jobs.

In 2008, __________ people were counted by the government as having income below the official poverty line.

39.8 million

Because of social stratification in the United States,

some people have more privileges and opportunities than others do.

In general, which category of people stands out as having a strong sense of family history?

the "old rich" or upper-upper class

How is income linked to the likelihood that people vote in presidential elections?

The higher the income, the greater the share of people who vote.

As of 2009 in the United States, about _______ of adults over the age of twenty-five were college graduates.

30 percent

The text gives several reasons that a socialist revolution did not take place as Karl Marx predicted. Which of the following statements is NOT one of the reasons given in the text?

There is no longer any concentration of wealth in our society.

Evidence suggests that, as the United States moves into the postindustrial phase of economic development, economic inequality is


People in high-income countries, who represent 23 percent of the world's population, earn about __________ of the world's income.

80 percent

In 2009, any one of the richest three people in the world had more wealth than the world's

the combined economic output of the world's thirty-four poorest countries.

The populations of poor nations in Africa

are increasing and will double in the next twenty-five years.

A social theorist who contributed to the development of dependency theory by tracing the growth of the capitalist world economy is

Immanuel Wallerstein.

One of the following nations never had colonial control of any part of Africa. Which nation is it?

United States

Middle-income nations typically have per capita income in the range of

$2,500 to $12,000.

Which type of slavery consists of employers holding workers captive by paying them too little to cover their debts?

debt bondage

Which type of slavery refers to one person owning another?

chattel slavery

The most serious problem of increasing poverty is found in

Africa, especially south of the Sahara.

Where on the planet would you find most high-income nations?

mostly in the Northern Hemisphere

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