Began in Eastern Europe when nobles began to get more control over peasants. This bound peasants to their lords through generations. This prevented them from leaving. One example of serfdom in Eastern Europe.
(The) 30 Years' War
A religious war in four phases: the Bohemian Phase, The Danish Phase, The Swedish Phase, and the French/International Phase. Began with the defenestration of Prague as a conflict between the Protestant Union and the Catholic League. Then the Danish leader Christian IV of the Catholic League bagan to win big victories. Then the Swedish king Gustavas Adolphus entered the war. Finally, The French entered the war on the Protestant side to oppose the Hapsburgs. This disastrous war is one fo the reasons why faith began to collapse, because it ruined the land, trade, and commerce in the areas in which it was fought. Once again, the Catholics' hope of a united empire was crushed. It was extremely devastating for German common people.
A union of Lutheran Princes in Germany formed because they feared that the Catholics would ignore the Peace of Augsburg. This union fought against the Catholic League in the 30 Years' war.
Formed in retaliation of the formation of the Protestant Union. Fought against the Protestant Union on the 30 Years' War.
Ferdinand of Styria
Catholic King in Bohemia who closed some Protestant Churches in Prague, in retaliation the local Protestants threw two of his officials from a window in Prague. This event began the 30 Years' War
Defenestration of Prague
Two of Ferdinand of Styria's official were thrown from a window in Prague in retaliation of Ferdinand closing two Protestant Churches. Even though they did not die, being thrown out of a window into a pile of poop was not good for governmental relations. This event began the 30 Years' War.
Frederick (elector of Palatinate)
Headed the Protestant Union. Defeated by Catholic forces at the battle of white mountain. Catholics began to sweep through Bohemia and forcibly convert everyone to Catholicism under the leadership of the HREmperor Ferdinand II.
Battle of the White Mountain
Ended the Bohemian Phase of the 30 Years' War. Protestant Union led by Fredrick (elector of the Palatinate) was defeated by the Catholic League led by Ferdinand (HRE). Ferdinand forcibly converted Bohemia to Catholicism and it remained catholic
Christian IV of Denmark
Leader of Denmark in the Danish Phase
Albert of Wallenstein
General of the Catholic Imperial Army. He won, but he was more interested in creating his own empire rather than fighting for the Catholic League. This divided the Catholic forces, and caused religion to not be the major issue of the war.
Edict of Restitution
Gave all property lost to Protestantism back to catholics. Albert of Wallenstein began to ruthlessly enforce this. Made people fear collapse of balance of power in eastern Europe.
Swedish King. When his army entered Germany the Swedish Phase of the 30 Years' War began. He won battles, but died in one. He ended the Hapsburgs' idea of uniting all german states. His death caused the French to enter the war on the Protestant side, thus beginning the French Phase.
*Peace of Westphalia
Ended the 30 Years' War. Conflicts over religion ended. It recognized the sovereign indepent German princes (over 300). Limited Power of Holy Roman Emperor. Acknowledged independence of United Provinces and Netherlands. Denied the Papacy the right to participate in Central European Religious affairs, which reduced political role of church. Made Augsburg agreement Permanent, but made it also apply to Calvinism.
Legal body in Bohemia. Controlled by Protestant Czech Nobility. Rose up in defense of protestant rights, but Habsburgs crushed rebellion at Battle of White Mountain. Ferdinand II then reduced the power of the it.
Battle of Mohacs
Divided Hungary between Ottomans and Habsburgs. War devastated Hungary. Hungarians resisted conversion to Catholicism.
Prince Francis Rákóczy
Led Hungarians in rebellion against the Habsburgs. They were defeated. There was a compromise. Charles VI restored traditional privileges to aristocracy, and aristocracy submitted to hereditary Habsburg rule.
HRE. He defeated Rákóczy's rebellion. He proclaimed Pragmatic Sanction.
Charles VI declared that Habsburg possessions were never to be divided. He did this so that his daughter Maria THeresa would become next ruler.
Dynasty that governed Prussia. Used to be Elector of Brandenburg.
Elector of Brandenburg
Helped choose HRE. No real power. HAd bad territory "sand box."
Frederick William ("Great Elector")
30 Years' War weakened estates, and led to the est. of absolutism. Determined to unify his 3 provinces: brandenburg, Prussia, and some territories along the Rhine.
Nobility of Brandenburg and Prussia. dominated estates. Struggles for power with the great elector. Great elector eventually got his way. He did this by forcing them to submit to permanent taxation without consent. He gave Junkers power over serfs, and taxed towns instead of Junkers.
First ruler titled king of Prussia. Son of Great elector. Given title for helping HREmperor in war of spanish succession.
Frederick William I ("The Soldiers' King")
a.k.a. "the soldier's king" Member of Hohenzollern family. Established Prussian absolutism, and great military. Never used the military. Loved the army. Made Junkers join military. Penny pincher. Built bureaucracy. Prussia became "Sparta of the North."
Unified mongols in 13th Century.
Period of time in which the Mongols ruled the Eastern Slavs. Their capital was at Saray. Used violence to impose control. Khan was supreme ruler. Used local princes as tax collectors.
serves the Mongols
consolidated power around Moscow. in 1480 he felt strong enough to not have the khan as his leader. He made Moscow independent from the Mongols. He drew power from being autocrat (he is sole source of power), and that he inherited Byzantine Empire (doctrine of the 3 Romes. Tsar is contraction of caesar.
Ivan III had to collaborate with them so that he could become ruler. They are russian nobles.
Nobles created to ensure that elites stayed loyal to the tsar. They held the tsar's land and served in his military.
Ivan IV ("Ivan the Terrible")
Began to rule at age 3. Mother died at 8. Abused by boyars. At 16 he crowned himself. Anastasia Romanov was his wife. Destroyed last remnants of mongols. Made all nobles serve him. Anastasia died. He creates special assassin force for enemies. Peasants were being squeezed. Some ran away and formed Cossacks. He then tied peasants to land, and he also tied urban artisans to their towns so he could tax them.
Groups of runaway peasants who basically formed their own societies. Maintained independence. Some led revolts
Ivan the Terrible's Grandnephew. Elected tsar by nobles after Cossack rebellions.
Wanted to change church to fit Greek Orthodox Model. Common people resisted, but his changes remained. The commonpeople formed communities of "old believers" but they were persecuted.
mentally not there
Boris Godunov was his chief minister
question of who was going to take over next had a brother Demetri...Demetri was found with his throat slit while Theodore was still alive that was ruled to be an accident after investigation
headed the commission after Demetri's death
said that he had a seizure and was not murdered
Theodores chief minister
had interesting ideas
took over after Theodore dies
Time of Troubles
After Theodore died the period was called the "time of troubles" because people were saying that they were the Demetri but they were not really him he was actually dead people wanted the real tsar
a port city that was attempted to be captured by a russian tsar during the time of troubles. this failure reinforced the idea that this were going really badly.
Peter the Great
Tall. Toured Europe and learned crafts. Allied with Denmark and Poland against Sweden. Required all nobles to serve in army or government. Created schools and Universities. Established a regular standing army. He finally won great Northern war. Tried to make russia more western. Made nobles shave beards. He westernized Russia.
Great Northern War
Peter the Great allied with Denmark and Poland against Sweden. Sweden did better than expected and defeated Peter at Narva. Peter eventually won.
*Battle of Poltava
Peter's revamped army crushed Sweden in this battle. Marked Russia as dominant power in baltic sea. Physical evidence of the success of his reforms. Significant because before this battle, nobody took Russia seriously, but after, Russia became a force to be reckoned with.
City built by Peter the Great. He wanted a westernized city. He took serfs from nobles to build it. Made nobles build houses there. Made them stay in it for a period of time. City is a symbol of Peter the Great's power.
Suleiman the Magnificent
Captured Bosnia, Croatia, Romania, Ukraine, and part of hungary at the battle of Mohacs. He undid the law that he can only have one heir per concubine, and can't have a heir with his wife.
Sultan Selim I
Ottomans invaded Egypt and Marmeluke and were successful in obtaining all of them and Arabian Peninsula under him.
Concubine that married Suleiman the Magnificent. Nicknamed "joyful one." She had influence over Suleiman. Grew up a slave girl. Rags to riches.
Treaty of Passarowitz
Habsburgs get Hungary and Transylvania. This marked the decline of the Ottoman Empire.
Each Religion given own community and allowed to govern itself under religious leaders. Created a bond between religious leaders and sultan in the Ottoman Empire. Demonstrated the extent of religious toleration.