Anatomy & Physiology Ch. 1-6

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Mid-term

What tells us that the Egyptians understood a lot about anatomy?

The way they mummified people.

How do the laws that God gave to the Hebrews show us that God cares about our health?

They protected people from germs they could not see.

What was wrong with the way the Greeks decided on their scientific beliefs?

They did not test them.

What did Galen use to treat the gladiators' wounds?

clean rags and wine soaked rags.

What did Hooke call the tiny rectangles he saw in the cork he examined under a microscope?

cells

Name the different cell parts about which you've learned.

Cell membrane, mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi bodies, ER, centrioles, and the nucleus.

Name the different things that bones do for your body.

They give you form and hold you up, they protect organs, they make blood cells, they store minerals and fats, and they help you move.

What is the periosteum?

The outer layer on a bone that has nerves and blood vessels.

What mineral makes compact bone strong and hard?

Calcium

What is the bone tissue that forms tunnels and pores called?

Spongy bone

What are the two kinds of bone marrow?

Red and yellow

What are osteoblasts?

The cells that make new bone.

Where are they smallest bones in your body found?

ear

Which is the longest bone in your body?

femur

What do ligaments do?

hold the bones together

What is the rounded part of your skull called?

cranium

What are the three kinds of muscle tissue in your body?

Skeletal, smooth and cardiac

Which muscle kinds are voluntary?

skeletal

Which muscle kinds are involuntary?

cardiac

What is muscle tone?

Partial contraction of your muscles throughout the day.

What are tendons?

tough fibers that connect your skeletal muscles to your bones.

Where is your Achilles tendon?

back of your ankle

What are antagonistic muscles?

they work opposite of each other

What do muscle cells have a lot of that give them energy?

Mitochondria

What things did we discuss that help muscles move?

Glucose, oxygen, vitamins and minerals.

What do muscles need to grow?

protein and exercise

How do you keep your cardiac muscle strong?

elevating your heart rate for 30 minutes or more several times a week.

Name two places in your body where you find smooth muscles.

blood vessels, stomach, intestines, and bladder.

What is the white outer layer of your tooth called?

Enamel

What is the layer right below the enamel called?

Dentin

What is the hardest substance in your body?

Enamel

Name a few things saliva does for you.

begins chemical digestion, protects teeth, defends against infection, and makes food taste better.

What is the name of the pipe that food goes down after you swallow it?

Esophagus

How do your stomach and esophagus keep from getting burned by your own stomach acid?

mucus is produced in the stomach, and the gastroesophageal sphincter keeps it in the stomach.

What is the food called when it enters the small intestine?

Chyme

What happens in the small intestine?

Digestion is completed, and the nutrients are sent to the bloodstream.

Which organ is like a huge chemical factory?

Liver

What do the kidneys do?

remove excess salts, water, and other substances from the blood and put them in the urine.

How do you know if you are dehydrated?

thirst, dark urine

Why do simple carbohydrates give you quick bursts of energy, while complex carbohydrates don't necessarily do that?

they take longer to digest

What do carbohydrates change into inside the body?

Simple carbohydrates, mostly glucose.

Proteins are made up of what kind of molecules strung together?

Amino acids.

What is a complete protein?

it contains all the essential amino acids.

Which foods provide your body with Omega 3 fatty acids?

Salmon, tuna, sardines, dark leafy green vegetables, avocados, sesame seeds, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, and flax seeds.

Where are minerals found?

In the earth and in the world's lakes, rivers, streams, and oceans.

What does the hair in your nose do?

filters large particles out of the air breathe.

What does the mucus in your nasal passage do?

captures particles out of the air you breathe.

What are cilia?

like motorized whips that push mucus out of your nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

Explain how the conchae help warm and moisten the air you breathe.

they disrupt the air flow, making the air bounce around and hit the warm, moist tissue in your nasal cavity.

What are the thin strips in your larynx called?

vocal cords

What determines your voice's pitch?

The tension in your vocal cords as well as how thick and heavy they are.

What determines your voice's volume?

How much air passes across your vocal cords.

How do the cartilage rings around your trachea help you?

keep it from collapsing

What are your bronchi?

tubes that carry air from your trachea to your lungs.

Explain the importance of alveoli.

places in the lungs where oxygen is put into the blood and carbon dioxide is removed.

Name some of the dangers of smoking.

increases chance of lung cancer, raises your BP, damages your lungs, and is an addictive.

How does the oxygen get from your lungs into your blood?

At the alveoli, the oxygen travels across the single-cell-thick blood vessel walls into blood cells.

What muscle is mostly responsible for your breathing?

The diaphragm.

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