Middle Ages and Reformation Terms

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western world spatola

Charles Martel

Pepin of Heristal's son; decides to be the Mayor of the Palace instead of king because he has more power; famous for turning back troops to prevent an Arab invasion in Europe and to keep cultures separate

Battle of Tours

An invasion by the Moors from North Africa

Charlemagne

One of Pepin the Short's sons; brother died so he became the sole ruler (for 46 years), known as "Charles the Great"; named "Emperor of the Romans" by the Pope who also crowned him; built a kingdom from North Sea to the Mediterranean; use of calvary; valued education although he was illiterate and uneducated and built a school in Aachen (a new capital) led by Alcuin, a clergymen; died in 814

Treaty of Verdun

Charlemagne's only son, Louis the Pious had three sons who fought over control of the empire; ended in the split of the empire in 3 ways: modern day Germany, France, and a middle kingdom fought over by the other 2

feudalism

a system based on relationships, responsibility, trust, and protection; kings give land (fiefs) to knights and nobles (higher and lesser nobles: lords/vassels) in turn for protection, peasants work on the land and give payments in turn for protection

manorialism

a system based on agriculture and self-sustaining, fortified farms; divided into a village, farmland, pasture, and wasteland and included a lord's manor and a church

knights/chivalry

age 7: page under a noble, age 14: squire, assistant to a knight, age 20: knight if completed the necessities

monasticism

a system where people lived in communities with other monks or nuns

St. Benedict

the person who made the rules of monsticism: they must be chaste, poverous, and obedient

lay investiture

the system of appointing church leaders by secular leaders

Concordat of Worms

a meeting of the Church council in 1122 which split investiture into 2 parts; emperor can grant lands to the Church, but the Church was the only one that could grant religious control

primogeniture

the system which made the first born son receive control of the land when the king dies

excommunication

punishment that banishes one from the church and takes away their sacrements and therefore, their salvation

interdict

excommunication of a group, banning all Church ceremonies in a certain place

bourgeoisie

the middle class, between peasants and nobles; free of restrictions on other classes, they grew in wealth and power and were close with nobility in political control

guilds-merchants

goal was to regulate and monopolize; those who buy, sell, and trade

guilds-artisans

goal was to regulate and monopolize; producers of the crafts and goods

apprentice to master

start as an apprentice without pay under a master, became a journeyman and got paid for his work, finally a master after presenting his "masterpiece"

Crusades-motives

started in the goal of spreading Christianity and allowing those who did, to obtain salvation

Crusades-results

brought Europe in contact with more advanced civilizations, trade between the East and West increased; lesser nobles lost power and had to sell their land and let their serfs free; weakened the Church/papacy, wanted wealth more than religion, greed within itself

Crusades-significance

lead to more advancements and trade centers and ended up weakening the papacy

William of Normandy

took the throne of England claiming it was promised to him by the last king; weakened the Anglo-Saxon society; created a strong monarchial government; unifies England/France

Norman Conquest

William led Norman knights across the English Channel to defeat the Anglo Saxons and Harold in the Battle of Hastings

common law

King Henry II introduced trial by jury, with witnesses, verdict based on evidence; uniform throughout England and applies to everyone

Magna Carta

the document made after recognizing the king's abuse of power; must get permission before taxation, king is punished under the same law as citizens, power of the king limited

Model Parliament-England 1295

basis of England's legislature today; a meeting called together with elected representatives

Ivan III

1480: he forced the last Mongols out of Russia and added land under Ruric territory

Ivan IV

expanded Russia further; made himself the czar; tried to break the power of nobility violently; became known as "Ivan the Terrible"

Babylonian Captivity

when Pope Clement V unexpectedly moved the capitol of the papacy to Avignon in southern France

Great Schism

Pope Gregory XI moved the papacy back to Rome, after his death the College of Cardinals elected an italian, Urban VI as the pope, but later elected a different man, the French Clement VII, but Urban refused to resign; each had their own College of Cardinals in Rome and Avignon; a third pope was elected but the other 2 refused to resign but later they were all forced out of office and a final one was elected to take presidence

John Wycliffe

looked to limit Church power; he believed the Church should not own excess land, challenged salvation through the Bible alone; followers called the Lollards

John Huss

continued to spread John Wycliffe's ideas but was burned at the cross

Black Death

a pandemic which killed more people than any war thus far; caused by bacteria through rats and fleas; left black patches over the body, caused boils, lung attacks; some believed it was punishment from God

The Hundred Years' War-causes

both England and France tried to expand their territories

The Hundred Years' War-results

France became a strong national monarchy; finance peacetime army-opposition by nobility; English Parliament strengthened

The Hundred Years' War-significance

religion grew in France via Joan of Arc; technology born; both France and England grew in power

Battle of Crecy-significance

the English used longbows which killed the French before they could get close enough to attack; "marked the beginning of the end for hand-to-hand combat"

Estates-General

new kind of legislature; representatives met in the goal of a national tax

Joan of Arc

convinced Charles that the heavens had told her to fight and she lead a successful attack against the English; taken by the English and persecuted for witchcraft and was burned at the stake in 1431

Romanesque architecture

stone roof with heavy pillars and round arches; dark and heavy, but with colorful art

Gothic architecture

pointed arches, buttresses, flying buttresses; light, airy, tall and had stained glass windows

vernacular languages

"common people languages"; became the romance languages: French, Spanish, Latin, Italian

St. Augustine

a prominent Roman Catholic bishop theologian from Hippo in Algeria

City of God

the first book after the Bible providing Christian thought; believed humans are sinful if they live in the City of Man; believed salvation is found by living in the City of God and committing no sins without forgiveness; pride is the start of all sins

scholasticism

studied in universities developed by a group of philosophers; brought together faith and reason

Thomas Aquinas

a scholar who wrote the Summa Theologica; he was the first to write something different than St. Augustine; scholastic

Summa Theologica

a book that says that a person must acquire reason and faith and believes in divine revelation; says to challenge and question faith

Natalie Zemon Davis

the woman related to the making of "The Return of Martin Guerre in 1983

The Return of Martin Guerre

a movie set in the 16th century south of France; focused on many aspects of Medieval culture; plot shows identity theft and how the Medieval jury deals with it to eventually find the truth

Martin Luther

he was disturbed by the selling of indulgences and sought to purify Christianity; wrote the 95 Theses

Johann Tetzel

a man who sold indulgences as an "insurance policy" under Pope Leo X's plan to raise money to build new lavish Churches

Ninety-Five Theses

Martin Luther's reasons for the corruption of the Church through the selling of indulgences

salvation by faith alone

Martin Luther's belief that one should not have to buy indulgences through other people or have "good works" to gain salvation but instead that you can connect with God through faith alone

Charles V

an emperor who sparked the Counter-Reformation and set up the Council of Trent

Peasants Revolt 1525

Luther understood peasantry, and helped some of their demands but when they began to burn churches, castles, and monasteries he urged the noble's to put down the peasants

Peace of Augsburg 1555

the treaty that said each German state government could choose its religion and all in that state had to abide

John Calvin

published the Institutes of the Christian Religion; leader of Calvinism; agreed with Luther on faith and Bible alone but also believed in predestination

Institutes of the Christian Religion

the book of John Calvin which expressed the main ideas of Calvinism

Doctrine of Predestination

that God has already chosen who will be saved (the elect)

John Knox-Scotland

A Scottish leader who established presbyterianism, Scottish Catholicism

Huguenots

French Calvinists

Anabaptists

a group that believed that Baptism must be highlighted and understood, therefore they must be re-baptized as adults; also believed in the abolition of marriage, private property, and class distinctions; outcasted and persecuted

Henry VIII

named "Defender of the Faith" by Pope Leo X; created the Church of England when the Pope refused his proposal for a divorce because his wife could not bear a boy

Act of Supremacy 1534

declared that the ruler of England was the head of the Church in England

Church of England

adopted most Catholic principles but the ruler of England is the head of the church, not the pope

Anglican Church

another way to say the Church of England

Catholic Reformation

reforms by Catholic leaders in the attempt to gain back some of the people who left Catholicism

Counter-Reformation

used interchangeably with the Catholic Reformation

Council of Trent

a Council that lasted for 18 years in the goal to reform Catholicism; ended up with the 3 Rs and the S: refusal of protestant ideas, reaffirmation of Catholic ideas; reforms-regulating indulgences, internal structure, improve priest training, and the inquisition of heresy

Inquisition

the system by the Catholic Church which tried to end all opposing Protestant religions and heretics

Ignatius of Loyola

a former soldier who led the Jesuits; told members to be ready to obey Church orders without questioning

Jesuits

organized like an army in trying to get people to join or rejoin the Catholic church; first verbally promoted Catholicism, then resorted to Inquisition, and if still ineffective, resort to war

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