The movement of air in and out of the lungs.
Is a mechanical action of inhalation (inspiration) and exhalation (expiration) that draws oxygen into the lungs and then releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
On average adults breathe how many times per minute?
12 to 16 per min.
The functions of the respiratory system are?
Exchange of gases, Olfaction, Sound production, Maintenance of homeostasis
Exchange of gases
Oxygen & carbon dioxide exchange is the primary function of the respiratory system. This gas exchange occurs in the lungs & through the capillary walls.
Refers to the sense of smell. It is through the act of inhalation that we detect scents.
Occurs by air moving over the vocal cords. This action combined with movements of the lips, facial muscles and tongue, forms words & produces speech.
Maintenance of homeostasis
The respiratory system helps maintain oxygen levels in the blood
The act of breathing helps regulate this?
the port of entry for air and the beginning of the air conduction pathway.
Separated into left and right halves by a septum.
Nosebleeds or Epistaxis
the nasal mucosa has such a rich blood supply nosebleeds often occur as a result of blows to the nose, weak blood vessels or high pressure.
Sinuses or Paranasal Sinuses are 4 groups of air-filled cavities in the skull. They are?
Frontal sinus, Sphenoidal sinus, Ethmoidal sinus, Maxillary sinus
Pharynx or throat
is a muscular tube approximately 5" long that is shared by the respiratory and the digestive systems.
Larynx or voice box
connects the pharynx to the trachea
The larynx has single cartilages which are the?
Epiglottis, cricoid and thyroid (adam's apple) which is the largest.
closes the trachea during swallowing, preventing food from entering the lower respiratory passageways.
This is referred to as the Guardian of the airways?
Trachea or windpipe
connect to the larynx with the bronchi.
the right and left primary bronchi are the large air-conduction passageways leading from the trachea to each lung.
Foreign bodies more often get lodged on this side of the bronchi
These are 1mm in diameter and terminate in the air sacs or alveoli.
located in the lungs are tiny sacs surrounded by capillaries and are attached to alveolar ducts.
These resemble a cluster of grapes?
primary organs of respiration
dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and is the main muscle of respiration.
the ease with which the thorax and lungs are able to stretch during inhalation.
The tendency of the thorax and lungs to return to their pre-inhalation size
Amount of air inhaled and exhaled in a single breath during normal breathing, usually while the person is resting.
total of the tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume. In the normal healthy adult lung, vital capacity usually ranges from 3.5 to 5.5 L to air.
Children breath _____ as fast as adults?
Absence of normal, spontaneous breathing
Impulses travel down the ____nerve to the diaphragm?
External respiration or pulmonary respiration
is gas exchange in the lungs
Internal respiration or tissue respiration
is the gas exchange between blood and body's tissue
Voiding or micturition
is the act of urination
Functions of the urinary system are?
Eliminates wastes and foreign substances, Regulates chemical composition of blood, Regulates blood pH, Regulates blood volume and fluid balance, Regulates blood pressure, Maintains homeostasis
The kidneys lie behind the ?
Peritoneum or retroperitoneally
The outer region of the kidney.
Renal cortex is where the what is located?
Where the nephron's glomerulus and bowman's capsule
The inner region of the kidney.
Renal medulla is where the what is located?
The nephron's loop of henle
The kidneys are composed of filtering units.
The nephron has 3 main parts they are?
Glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, renal tubule
is a small cluster of blood vessels within the bowman's capsules.
hollow cup-shaped mouth of a nephron
part of the nephron leading from the bowman's capsule. This is where collected wastes and fluids become urine
collected in bowman's capsule then transported to the renal tubule.
numerous collecting tubules organize themselves into a dozen or so distant triangular wedges
Cortical tissue located between the medullary pyramids.
collecting ducts join larger ducts and become the renal papillae located at the narrow base of each pyramid.
each renal papilla protrudes into a small cuplike structure
large collection reservoir which is the upper region of the ureter.
The Juxtaglomerular apparatus are 2 important structures?
the juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa
Juxtaglomerular cells are located in the?
These cells assist in maintaining blood pressure by secreting an enzymen ____ when blood pressure drops?
Juxtaglomerular cells and renin
Mucula densa is located in the?
ascending limb of the henle loop
as the renal artery enters the kidney, the artery narrows.
afferent arteriole branches into a small cluster of fine capillaries within bowman's capsule.
blood leaves the glomerulus and flows into this.
Filtration process is a 3 step process. The 3 steps are?
Filtration, Reabsortion, Tubular secretion
2 slender, hollow tubes extending from the renal pelvis of the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
a hollow muscular organ and a reservoir for urine.
narrow tube that transports urine from the urinary bladder out of the body during voiding.
concentrated filtrate from the kidneys that is 96% water and 4% dissolved wastes.
Micturition or voiding
begins with a voluntary relaxation of the external sphineter muscle of the bladder
skins resiliency which decreases during dehydration.
abnormal accumulation of fluids
used to describe edema that leaves a pit of dent in a swollen area once the skin is compressed for a few seconds and released; the edematous tissue rebounds slowly.