Chaper 14 Final Exam

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Chapter 14 Terms

canonization

- A process by which the church designates certain persons as saints and therefore models of the Christian life
- Also the process by which the canon of the Bible took shape

mortal sin

sin that is committed willfully and deliberately and with the understanding that it is serious wrongdoing

purgatory

a place or state following death in which sinners destined for heaven undergo the punishment still remaining of forgiven sins and thereby are "purged" or made ready for heaven

communion of saints

the ancient belief, enshrined in the creeds, that deceased holy ones share a relationship with the living members of the church

vicarious satisfaction

the possibility that someone could pay the debt of another person's sin

indulgences

A practice popular in the medieval church in which the Church would cancel all or part of the penance (punishment) due to an individual who had sinned
-The individual had completed certain devotions, acts of charity, or services for the Church, as substitutes

sacrament

A symbolic ritual consisting of words and visible gestures or material substances which, when properly performed for a recipient disposed to its action, becomes the means of transmitting the grace of God.
- Traditionally, it has been defined as an outward sign instituted by Christ to give grace

Inquisition

-A legal body set up to investigate and punish heretics
- Usually under the jurisdiction of church officials, but civil leaders were often called upon to execute whatever punishments were assigned

Albigensians

Originally were Cathars

Cathars

- Meaning "pure ones" the anticlerical, Christian reform movement emerged in the twelfth century A.D. teaching that the world and the flesh were the work of an evil god
-Practiced severe ascetism
-Wide-spread in southern France, eventually became known as Albigensians

Waldensians

-Named for their founder Valdes
- 12th Century A.D. Poor Men of Lyons sought to return to the apostolic life of the early Church
-Extreme hostility toward clergy
-Condemned at the Council of Verona in 1184

Beguines

-Independent communities of lay women that first emerged in Europe in the High Middle Ages
- No rule or permanent religious vows, shared a form of common life and engaged in contemplative prayer or ministries of caring for the sick and poor

Dominicans

-An order of beggar friars founded by Dominic Guzman
- also called the Order of Preachers
- Known for radical understanding the vow of poverty, their primary vocation was to preach and hear confessions

Dominic Guzman

-Founder of the Dominican order of mendicants (a.k.a. the Order of Preachers

Franciscans

- Community founded by Francis of Assisi
- Also known as the Friars Minor ("The Lesser Brothers")
- Known for their radical understanding of the vow of poverty, their primary vocation is to preach the gospel and to witness to it in action

Francis of Assisi

Founder of the Franciscan order of Friars

friar

From a Latin word meaning "brother" the term refers to a person who belongs to a mendicant order

mendicant

-From a Latin word for "begging"
- Type of religious order that emerged in the High Middle Ages
- lived in towns and cities, begged for their livelihood
- performed whatever ministry needed to be done

Bernard of Clairvaux

a Cistercian monk who wrote and preached extensively on the spiritual life

Cistercians

- A group of monks who sought religious reform by returning to the primitive Benedictine life in wilderness areas
- Named for their first house at Cîteaux in France

Boniface VIII

- Pope who published 'Unam Sanctam'
-'Unam Sanctum' asserts authority of the papacy over the emerging nation kingdoms of that time

transubstantiation

A teaching about how the bread and wine of the Eucharist becomes the body and blood of Jesus Christ

Fourth Lateran Council

Urged reform of the clergy and defined the dogma of transubstantiation, concerning the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist

interdict

- A kind of "strike" in which the Church shuts down the sacramental system
- Used in the medieval period by popes who wished to discipline civil leaders

Innocent III

-Pope of the Roman Catholic Church
-Best known for political involvements
-Reigning during the time of the Fourth Lateran Council

curia

The pope's court staffed by the college of cardinals
-A papal advisory team of bishops and clergy

Christendom

- A term that modern historians have given to the thorough merging of Christianity and culture
-Took place in Europe in 12 & 13 centuries (High Middle Ages)

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