Animals with backbones
fish that have skeletons made out of cartilage, like sharks, scales and rays
A chordate/animal having a bony or cartilaginous skeleton with a segmented spinal column and a large brain enclosed in a skull or cranium
Jawless fish, tounge has spines, tiny cranium, lacks vertebral column, has notochord,mucus spore glands.
One of the only two types of jawless fish to still exist, have glands that release toxic, slippery mucas substance. Is Anadromous.
migrating from the sea to fresh water to spawn
one of the hard scales that resemble vertebrate teeth and cover skin of sharks and rays
whale, megamouth, basking sharks - filter small planktonic animals from water column
Tail fin- propels through water
modified pelvic fins on a male shark that allows for transfer of sperm to female
Ampullae of Lorenzini
special sensing organs called electroreceptors, forming a network of jelly-filled canals; these organs help sharks sense electric fields in the water
Follows seal patterns of migration
daily movement up and down the water column; deep during day, come up to feed at night.
Atlantic & N. Atlantic. Crescent shaped tail
Medium-sized live-bearing shark with eyes at either end of a flattened hammer-shaped head. Can change angle of head for navigation, buoyancy, sense rays. Eat stingrays.
Deep sea shark. Diurnal migrator. Big snout. Loreinzini detect prey.
large pelagic shark of warm seas with a whiplike tail used to round up small fish on which to feed
a most common shark in temperate and tropical coastal waters worldwide. Will come into surf zone. can swim in to freshwater.
large dangerous tropical/Hawaiian islands shark with striped or spotted body that serves as camouflage. Eat anything. Don't migrate a lot.
Cookie Cutter shark
Small shark, big eyes . Diurnal migrator. Luminescent. Takes bite out of prey.
Largest of the cartilaginous fish, 60 feet long. Common in temperate regions & coastal upwellings. Filter feeder, swims with mouth open - has elongated gill rakers that act like a sieve. Coloration pattern; dorsal white spots.
Large harmless plankton-eating northern shark. Filter feeder. Can come close to shore.
Vertical migrator. Only known for about 20 years; very rare. Filter feeder - feeds on plankton & jellyfish
small openings located behind the eyes of sharks and rays that serve as an opening for water entering the gill chamber when the animal is at rest.
Wings; enlarged pectoral fins to swim. No dorsal fin. Stinging barb. Spiracles behind eyes on dorsal surface. Gill slits on ventral surface. Bottom feeders (except manta rays)
flattened with disc- or diamond shaped body,pointed noses, rough or spiny skin, lay egg cases know as mermaid purse. Fleshier than rays. No barbs.
mermaids purse/devils purse
leathery rectangular egg case
extremely large pelagic tropical ray that feeds on plankton and small fishes. solitary/some swim in schools. Cephalic lobes help it steer.
powerful free-swimming tropical ray noted for 'soaring' by flapping winglike fins. Live/swim in big schools. Color patterns convergent with whale sharks.
there are a wide variety of species. They have sharp spine(s) with serrated edges on tail.Spine is normally covered by sheath that can contain toxins. Spiracles pump water in.
primitive ray with sharp teeth on each edge of a long flattened snout. Tail like a shark.
smooth skinned deep sea fish with a tapering body and long threadlike tail. Ratfish, rabbitfish, spookfish. Bottom feeder.
has jaws, scales, gills, and a bone skeleton. include most farmiliar kinds of fish like trout. 95% of all fish species.
Coelacanths; Ancestors gave rise to the first amphibians and thus ultimately to all tetrapod vertebrates. Diurnal migrators. Primative. buoyant; swim bladder. internal anatomy same as sharks. heavy scales.
fish similar to rays in regards to their fins.
highly vascular; lots of hemoglobin present. Well supplied with oxygen, used for steady, constant-effort swimming and is found in active fish, particularly those that live in the open waters of seas and oceans.
reduced blood flow, and therefore, a reduced oxygen availability. convenient for short quick bursts of movement, in which capacity they out compete red muscle easily, but that they are no good for prolonged swimming.
scaleless fish. Groove in tongue directs water.
Fish body shapes
indicators of lifestyle;
Streamlined/fusiform - open water, pelagic - Marlin.
Laterally compressed (deep body) - navigate thru sea beds easily - angel fish, butterfly fish.
Flat (dorsoventrally flattened) - bottom dwelling - flounder. Globular - sedentary lifestyle - scorpionfish.
Eel like - burrow/tight environments - moray eels
Bony fish - primative, bottom feeder, bony scales - monk fish, puffer, sea horse
Sucker fish - attaches to any marine organism - Remora
pigment cells that change the color of an organism, allowing it to camouflage
Coloration & patterning
help prey blend into environment; help predators conceal self from prey. Also used as advertising to attract mates or warn other fish they taste bad or are dangerous.
animals that are living in the "middle ocean" between 600-3,000 feet deep
dark layer of the ocean where some fish utilize bioluminescence. midnight zone.
Below the bathypelagic; no sunlight. reduced eyes on animals that live in this zone.
white on bottom, blend into light of background.
vertical lines disrupt the background color of the body. makes it hard for predators to see prey.
A camouflage pattern in which the upper surface of pelagic animals is dark and the lower surface light to blend in with the ocean depths or the surface, respectively, when observed by a potential predator.
an animal that sometimes maintains its body temperature at a certain level, e.g. when active, but at other times allows it to fluctuate with the environment
an arrangement where the water flows through the gill filaments in the opposite direction of the blood flow allowing more oxygen to diffuse into the blood.
The science of shaping objects so they allow the easy flow of fluids around them to reduce drag
largest tuna; small scales, luniate tail - optomized for propulsion & speed, swim with mouth open - optimize water over gills. Grooves on tongue.
process by which an organism maintains the proper concentration of solutes and water in its body fluids.