government in which a ruler(monarch) has complete authority over the government and the lives of people he or she governs
African National Congress (ANC)
political party created by educated Africans in 1912, members worked through legal means, protesting laws that restricted the freedom of Black Africans, had no effect on South Africa's white government
After World War II, thousands of blacks moved to towns and cities. There, as elsewhere in Africa, black nationalism stirred demands for equality. In response, Afrikaners, who were descended form Dutch settlers, demanded severe new limits on blacks. Africaners claimed that apartheid would allow each race to develop its own culture.
Age of Exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
The English Alliance during World War 1. included Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States
(1918-1981) President of Egypt between 1970 and 1981. He was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists for making peace with Israel. Allows Muslim Brotherhood to operate as a political party
Idi Amin Dada, who became known as the 'Butcher of Uganda' for his brutal, despotic rule whilst president of Uganda in the 1970s, is possibly the most notorious of all Africa's post-independence dictators. Amin seized power in a military coup in 1971 and ruled over Uganda for 8 years. Estimates for the number of his opponents who were either killed, tortured, or imprisoned vary from 100,000 to half a million. He was ousted in 1979 by Ugandan nationalists, after which he fled into exile.
Prejudice against Jews
Policy of strict racial separation in South Africa; abolished in 1989
policy of giving in to an aggressor's demands in order to keep the peace
First leader of PLO- Palestinian liberation organization. Used aggressive terrorism to try to destroy Israel. Very actice throughout the 1970's and 1980's. To try to make peace with Israel, was put incharge of Palestinean Authority (PA).
Agreement to end fighting in a war
Aswan High Dam
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
war general and war hero in Turkey, afar WWI he leads a Turkish Nationalist Movement, he over threw the sultan, defeated western forces and declared turkey a republic, called himself "Father of the Turks"
Also known as Austria-Hungary, or the Hapsburg Empire, as it was ruled by the Habsburg monarchy from 1867 to 1918. Austria-Hungary extended over most of central Europe. It was composed the modern day countries of Austria, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, as well as parts of present-day Poland, Romania, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
Iranian religious leader of the Shiites; when Shah Pahlavi's regime fell Khomeini established a new constitution giving himself supreme powers (1900-1989)
Balance Of Power
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI, similar to zionism
Bay of Pigs
The CIA sent Cuban exiles back to CUba to overthrow Castro, exiles were caught by Castro and JFK will not rescue them, Cuba is 90 miles from Florida; communism now in our hemisphere, ties between Russia and Cuba grow closer
After WWII was over, the city of Berlin was divided, West Berlin=Democracy East Berlin=Communistic, Soviets wanted all control of Berlin, in effort to run democracy out of West Berlin, they blockaded any goods from getting into the city, The US and others airlifted goods into the city, after 11 months soviets ended the blockade
After WWII, East and West Berlin were divided and separated by this wall, used to stop ideas from spreading to each side, "IRON CURTAIN"
Serbian nationalist/terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the start of World War I.
lightning war, fight a quick and surprising war
Dutch settlers in south Africa
a Russian member of group that followed Lenin and eventually became the Russian communist party
the social class between the lower and upper classes, the middle class
nonelective government officials, system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit
led the revolution of Cuba and took control of Cuba in 1959; resented past dictators; made Cuba communist; became close with Russia which threatened the US
restriction on access to ideas and information
a government in which a central authority controls the running of a state.
Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1869-1940. famous for advocating peace and policy of appeasement with Hitler at the Munich Conference
Chinese Communist Revolution
A political revolution in China led by Mao Zedong. After several years of fighting the Kuomintang, the communists won control of the country in 1949.
Sir Winston Churchill
(1874-1965) British politician and Prime Minster of Great Britain from 1940 to 1945, and 1951 to 1955. He is regarded as the finest British leader of the 20th century and was instrumental in leading Britain to victory during World War II; voice of Britain
refusal to obey unjust laws; Ghandi
He was the French representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union following WWII. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years. Came to an end with the take down of the Berlin wall in 1989. "War of Words"
government-owned farms and employed large numbers of workers; all crops distributed by the government
Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and social principles in another territory.
an economic system in which the government answers the four economic questions: What is produced? How much is produced? How is it produced? For whom is it being produced?
the United States federal department that promotes and administers domestic and foreign trade (including management of the census)
Commonwealth of Independent States
an alliance made up of states that had been Soviet Socialist Republics in the Soviet Union prior to its dissolution in 1991
community in which property is held in common, living quarters are shared, and physical needs are provided in exchange for work at assigned jobs.
form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole
The Communist Manifesto
The book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.
A political revolution in Russia beginning in 1917. The Bolsheviks, now known as Communists, overthrew Czar Nicholas II and created a socialist government based upon the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Also know as the Bolshevik Revolution.
-migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
-A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
Indian National Congress
-Created in 1885 by nationalist leaders, and later became known as the Congress party
-Called for greater democracy and looked forward to eventual self rule but supported western style modernization
Indian Nationalist Movement
-Gandhi's movement using civil disobedience (no violence, weapons, etc)
-the development of industries for the machine production of goods
-Economic style that involves a rapid rise in prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available
-Mutual dependence of countries on goods
-Winston Churchill said that the satellites were cut off from Western influence and an iron curtain has been made
-it seperates/stops ideas, communication, and everything
-Muslims who strictly follow the teachings of the Koran and reject western ideas
Israeli - Palestinian Conflict
-the ongoing conflict between the Israelis and Palestinians
Israeli War for Independence
-in 1948, was the first in a series of wars fought between the State of Israel and its Arab neighbors in the continuing Arab-Israeli conflict.
-Took over the Guomindang after Sun's death
-Chinese nationalist leader that was against Mao; supported by the US; loss to Mao, so he and his followers fled to Taiwan
-King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany whose political policies led his country into World War I. He was forced from power when Germany lost the war
-Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another
-Independence leader who help lead Kenya out of European imperialism after World War II.
-Communist Guerillas who, led by Pol Pot, took over Cambodia and unleashed a reign of terror
-Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964
-He was critical of Stalin's policies and attempted to reverse some of them
-responsible for placing nuclear missiles in Cuba which resulted in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
-began in East Asia when communist North Korean forces invaded noncommunist South Korea
-(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
-An economic concept that holds that the government should not interfere with or regulate business and industries
League of Nations
-International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join
-It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
-he promised the people what they wanted: peace, bread, and land
-encourages class structure
Little Red Book
-A book circulated throughout China during the reign of Mao Zedong, which contained his political philosophy for China
-It was required reading in all schools.
Lloyd George, David
-British Prime Minister from 1916 to 1922, he led Great Britain through World War I
-He was one of the formulators of the Treaty of Versailles.
-A 6,000-mile journey made in 1934-1935 by Chinese Communists fleeing from Jiang Jieshi's Nationalist forces
-important African National Congress leader who became a powerful symbol of the Anti-Apartheid Movement's struggle
-leader of China who founded People's Republic of China
-promises peasants land and supported women
-showed that the nationalist government was corrupt and had too much foreign influence
-head the Great Leap Forward
-Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945). (789)
-economic system in which decisions on production and consumption of goods and services are based on voluntary exchange in markets
-A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $12 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
-German born social philosopher, considered the "father of communism"
-In the mid 1800's he argued that history was a struggle between the classes that would end with a victory for the proletariat
-a violent movement in Kenya during the 1960s, led by Kikuyu farmers, to rid the country of white settlers that eventually led to Kenya's decolonization from Britain
-an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
-a political orientation of a people or a government to maintain a strong military force and to be prepared to use it aggresively to defend or promote national interests
-market-based economic system with limited government involvement
-leader of fascists (Italy)
-strengthened industry and agriculture; however, wages fell, increased work hours, and taxes rose
-North American Free Trade Agreement
-A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
-a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
-an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
-materials found in nature (can be renewable or nonrenewable) including air, forests, water, minerals and fossil fuels
-a member of the National Socialist German Workers' Party
-brought to power under the rule of Adolf Hitler
-Indian nationalist leader and the first prime minister of independent India from 1947 to 1964
-Along with Mohandas Gandhi, he was instrumental in freeing India from Britain's control
New Economic Policy
-Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1924 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises
-Joseph Stalin ended the N.E.P. in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans
-Independence leader who help lead the first African country, Ghana, out of European imperialism after World War II and to independence
-a weapon of mass destruction whose explosive power derives from a nuclear reaction
-crimes against humanity
-German, Italian, and Japanese war criminals were made to answer for the horrors of WW2
-there were 22 defendents, 19 were found guilty, 12 were sentenced to death, and others went to prison
-The control of one country by another through the stationing of military troops and military government.
-an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
-countries that border the pacific ocean
Palestinian Liberation Organization (Plo)
-The group of Palestinians dedicated to regaining from Israel their homeland in Palestine
detention center for civilians considered enemies of the state
A monarchy in which the powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the constitution and laws of the nation
policy used in order to prevent the spread of communism; no communist ideas can reach those who are untainted
a sudden decisive exercise of force in politics; especially: the violent overthrow or alteration of an existing government by a small group
cuban missile crisis
US worried about placement of Russian weapons on newly-communist Cuba
armed revolt by Fidel Castro and men of 26th of July movement against Bautista's dictatorship
the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another. It occurred through migration, trade, and warfare.
the behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group
last emperor of Russian empire, nicknamed "Bloody Nicholas" for his role in anti-Semitic pogroms, Bloody Sunday, and execution of political opponents
cutting down of forest for land growth
both a democracy and a republic, but they do not always hold free and fair elections
a Chinese politician and leader of the Communist party there after Mao Zedong's demise- makes economic communism more loosely based- in return, people want more political freedom
land degradation in dry, semi-arid, etc. lands- whether by climate change or human actions
easing of strained relations, especially in a political setting
A nation where the average income is much lower than in industrial nations, where the economy relies on a few export crops, and where farming is conducted by primitive methods.
any group that has been dispersed outside its traditional homeland
A state or government under dictatorial rule
Treatment or consideration based on class or category rather than individual merit; partiality or prejudice
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
A theory that one event will set off a train of similar events.
A Russian national parliament during czarist times
a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas
a group of people who identify with each other
the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own
an economic and political union of European states established in 1992
widespread scarcity of food- caused by crop failure, government policies, overpopulation, etc.
all actions of individuals are for the good of the state
archduke of austria- the assassination of him and his wife are catalysts for WWI
Five year plans
plans for policies of China, Soviet Union, etc. to effect change in the nation
policy for relations with other countries-strategies to protect country's own interest
by Zhou Enlai under Mao Zedong- agriculture, national defense, industry, and science/technology
speech given by president Woodrow Wilson- introduced the idea of "peace without victory"
pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement, employed non-violent civil disobedience to achieve his goals
deliberate destruction of an ethnic, racial, or religious group
policy of transparency within government regarding government activities- instituted by Mikhail Gorbachev
instituted glasnost, last Soviet Union leader
ruling or governing body of a nation
Great Leap Forward
Failed industrialization campaign undertaken by the Chinese communists between 1958 and early 1960
a town in Japan where US bombed in order to end the war
leader of Nazi Germany- believer in communism, wrote Mein Kampf during jail time
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese Marxist revolutionary, president of North Vietnam
genocide of millions of European Jews committed by Nazis
universal rights for everyone- social justice
leader of al-Qaida and possible mastermind of 9/11 attacks
the body of doctrine that guides a government in decision-making and policy
What movement sought unity based on Arab heritage?
What movement emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent around the world?
The movement that wanted unity among all Slavic people?
What is a dividing line for Korea?
What is a democratic government determined by a parliament?
What is a Russian political movement within the communist party meant to restructure the Russian political and economic system?
War between Iraq and Iran over border disputes, oil wealth, foreign intervention, and ambitious rulers. US eventually became involved to drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait.
Persian Gulf War
Who was the leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia?
What refers to self-governance?
What was political ideology of US during the Cold War?
Contain communism until it collapses.
What was political ideology of Soviet Union during the Cold War.
What is another word for the working class?
What was a teenage group that attacked counterrevolutionaries in China?
What is the payment for war damages or damages caused by imprisonment?
What is a government that has a person chosen by the people to represent them?
What is a system of government in which officials are chosen by the people?
What is the adoption of Russian culture?
During what war did Japan's armies defeat Russian troops in Manchuria, and almost destroy a Russian fleet?
What display of civil disobedience set out to end the British salt monopoly?
What is the right of people to choose their own form of government?
Who was the leader of the Zulus in southern Africa>
What was Russia and it's group of satellite nations called?
What caused the Space Race?
USSR & US had almost equal nuclear power, each looked for another way to display power.
Who took power after Lenin and set out to make the Soviet Union into a modern industrial power?
What was the largest reason for the stock market crash?
Buy on margin
What is buying on margin?
Buying stock on credit and hoping the price will rise. If it does you have to sell it fast, but if it goes down you have to pay back the credit. If you don't have the money it hurts economy.
Who was a spokesman for a Chinese republic that had the goal to rebuild China on "Three Principles of the People"?
What is a tax on imported goods?
What is a deliberate use of random violence, esp against civilians, to achieve political goals?
What was a civil protest mourning Hu Yaobang that ended in troops being sent and hundreds killed?
Tiananmen Square Massacre
What is a government in which a one-party dictatorship regulates every aspect of citizens' lives?
What were four terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
Germany was diarmed and stripped of colonies, had to pay reparations, self determination to once colonies, and League of Nations would be formed.
What system used trenches to protect soldiers, but made it difficult for soldiers to move forward?
What 3 countries were in the Triple Alliance?
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
What 3 countries were in the Triple Entente?
Britain, France, and Russia
What were the 3 points of the Truman Doctrine?
Us would support people who resisted take over, support would come in economic and military aid, and the doctrine would keep Greece, iran, and Turkey from communism.
What brought on the Truman Doctrine
Greece, Turkey, and Iran were threatened w/ communism and other countries became communistic.
How was the United Nations formed?
Immediately after the war delegates met and chartered a draft for the UN. US became involved in UN. More successful than League of Nations because had a way to reinforce rules.
What did the Universal Declaration of Human Rights declare?
All people are intitled to basic rights and freedoms without any discrimination.
What is the movement of people form rural areas to cities?
What was another name for the National Liberation Front in South Vietnam?
Describe the Vietnam War.
a prolonged war between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States. Example of a proxy war.
Describe the Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
Who was Woodrow Wilson?
US president. Proposed 14 Points and influenced the Treaty of Versailles.
Describe World War I
A war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918.
Describe World War II
War fought Between Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) and Allied Powers (U.S., France, U.S.S.R., and U.K.); Single largest war in the history of U.S.; Introduced Age of Nuclear Weapons; New system of international diplomacy developed as a result; US became involved in 1941 to help end the war.
Describe Boris Yeltsin
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
What is Zionism
a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine
who were the superpowers of the 20th century and constantly in competition with one another?
The US and the USSR
What is the name for the followers of the 19th century Italian nationalist leader Giuseppe Garibaldi?
What was the Yalta conference? (4 things decided)
The Big Three agree that after victory was achieved: Germany would be divided into occupation zones. There would be free elections into the liberated countries of Eastern Europe. The Soviets would enter the war against Japan. New world peace organization.
When is V-E day and who was the general who headed it?
May 8, 1945- General Keitel
What was Hitler's plan for Europe? (The Holocaust)
Hitler planned to colonize Eastern Europe by the Germans. Deserving members of the Master Race would be given farms, factories, and businesses.
Who were the inferiors in Hitler's opinion? What did he want to do to them?
Russians, Poles, Jews, people with disabilities, Gypsies, etc. He sent them to factories or concentration camps.
Define anti-semitism. What laws reflect this?
Hostility or prejudice against Jews. Hitler had specifically marked Jews for destruction. The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 took away the citizenship rights of German Jews.
What is Kristallnacht?
"Night of Broken Glass" Nazis killed and beat Jews throughout Germany and Austria. Their homes, shops, and places of worship were looted and smashed.
Many Jews fled from Germany to escape the Third Reich. They fled to North or South America to escap the Third Reich. As the Nazis overtook Europe the Jews that fled were no longer safe. Nazis referred to European Jews as the "Jewish Problem".
When did the Nazis decide to murder all European Jews?
The Wannsee conference in 1942.
Death Camps and death toll
In every country they conquered the Nazis rounded up the Jews and sent them to death camps. Auschwitz and Dachau were two of the most famous concentration camps. 6 million jews were killed.
What is genocide?
Deliberate destruction of an entire cultural or religious group.
Who is Tokyo Rose and what role did she play in the war?
Generic name given by Allied forces in the South Pacific during WWII to any of approximately a dozen English-speaking female broadcasters of Japanese propaganda. "She" would say hurtful things to American airmen over the radio in order to disrupt their morale.
The Bataan Death March
The day after Philippine surrender to Japanese, the 75,000 Filipino and American (12,000) troops were captured and began a forced march to a prison camp. Prisoners forced to match 85 miles in 6 days- only one meal of rice during journey.
Battle of Midway island
-one of the most decisive battles of the war, it effectively destroyed Japan's naval strength when the American destroy four aircraft carriers, Japanese navy never recovers from Midway and it was on the defensive after the battle
"divine wind"- suicide attacks from Japan against Allied naval vessels at the end of WWII.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Truman warned Japan to surrender or face utter destruction. Then the US bombs Hiroshima and Nagasaki. One month after second attack, Japan officially surrenders.
The US had developed a new weapon- atom bomb. Headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer a physicist- project started in 1942.
Results of WWII
WWII killed more than 75 million people- 38 million died in combat in Europe- Millions of Jews killed in Holocaust- no exact number due to loss of records.
Nuremberg war trials
Nazi leaders charged with crimes against humanity, violations of international law to waging aggressive warfare (along with Italian and Japanese leaders). There were 22 defendants and 19 found guilty. 12 were sentenced to death and the others went to prison.
Many war criminals escaped by
assuming other identities in other countries.
Japan after WWII
General Macarthur directed post-war occupation in Japan. Japan received a new constitution. Emperor stripped of his title. Japan not allowed to have military.
The creation of the U.N.
UN formed after WWII. Put in place immediately after the war- April 1945 delegates meet in San Francisco.
Division of Germany
Allies agree that occupation was to be temporary- Germany should not be allowed to become strong enough to threaten Europe again. The Soviets, who had suffered massive devastation wanted reparations. Germany was to remain united. After occupation of its German sector, the Russians began nationalizing of industry and other reforms in their zone which made unification almost impossible.
Soviet ideology in the Cold War
US ideology in the Cold War
contain communism until it eventually collapses.
Two methodologies to accomplish their goals in the Cold War (of US and Soviet Union)
espionage, arms race
How were the US and Soviet Union competing during the Cold War?
Arms race and trying to take over third world countries, using proxy wars. Would fund wars, this represented democracy vs communism
3 countries in NATO
US, Britain, France
Name 3 countries of the Warsaw Pact?
USSR, Hungary, Poland
Explain the Iron Curtain.
Soviets had liberated countries form the Nazis and kept control. These were called satellite nations. These countries were cut off from Western influence. Metaphor Iron Curtain coined by Churchill.
What was the Truman Doctrine a response to?
Countries taken over by communists, others threatened with communism.
3 points of the Truman Doctrine
US would support free people that resisted take over. Support through economic and military aid. Keep Greece, Iran, Turkey from communism.
What was Marshall Plan a response to?
After WWII countries' economies slowed.
What did Marshall Plan do?
Helps any European country with economic recovery plan and provide aid.
How did the Soviets blocade Berlin?
Kept any goods from getting into city. US airlifted goods into the city.
Who led the Space Race?
USSR and US had almost equal nuclear weapons, so the Space Race was another way for them to compete and USSR was almost always ahead of US in technology.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
CIA sent Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro. Caught and JFK will not rescue.
Why was Cuba troublesome for US?
ally of USSR 90 miles from US
Describe the Cuban missile crisis.
Russia puts missiles on military bases in Cuba facing US. Kennedy calls Khruschev to remove missiles or US will take it as act of war. At last minute, missiles removed. Agreed to remove weapons as long as US promised not to invade Cuba. Signed Nuclear Test Treaty-slowed arms race.
Americans afraid communism would infiltrate the US. Loyalty Review Board, investigate government employees, Smith Act.
Describe Smith Act
Said it was illegal to advocate the overthrow of the gov't by force or belong to an organization advocating this.
Political Triangle- describe each point
1) type of gov't, 2) community- laws and taxes, 3) the people and whether they choose to follow laws and pay taxes
accumulation of goods and colonies b/c of pride in one's country
pride in one's country
government run by the people
government run by few
government run by one
government run by a queen or king
government run by a dictator- idea of "total equality"
Karl Marx and his thoughts on communism
Thought up communism, wrote Communist Manifesto, thought there should be a classless society where people aren't defined by money or rank
Who led the fascist movement and what did it mean?
Mussolini- Everything that people do, they do for good of nation
1) distribution, 2) resources, 3) tools and technology
What are the four economic questions?
What is produced? How much is produced? How is it produced? For whom is it produced?
What question do the four economic questions answer?
What type of economy does the country have?
Describe a traditional economy. (include who answers economic questions)
The people answer the four economic questions. This is an economy based totally on trade- trade w/ neighbor in tribal communities.
Describe a market economy. (who answers the economic questions)
All four economic questions are answered by the consumer. Usually used in democracies.
Describe a command economy. (who answers the economic questions)
Four economic questions are answered by the government. Usually used in communism.
Describe a mixed economy. (who answers the economic questions)
mixture of market/ command- our economy- democracy
Supply and demand have a(n) ______ relationship.
Demand and price have a(n)_______ relationship.
1) defines who you are as a person, 2) lifestyle, 3) education
Outline of a DBQ
1) Intro-thesis-time period, 2) political, 3)social, 4)economic, 5) concession or counter argument, 6)conclusion
In which paragraphs of a DBQ do you use the documents?
family beyond immediate family
What is monotheism and what are the major monotheistic religions?
worship of one god- Christianity, Judaism, and Islam
worship of more than one god
marriage to one person
marriage to two people
male dominated society
female dominated society
building up of the military
What was Bosnia's role in WWI?
The Austrian archduke was assassinated there.
Central powers and role in the war
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy- lose war
Triple Alliance and role in the war
Britain, France, and Russia- win war
when one country takes over another politically, socially, or economically
What was the race for colonies in Africa due to? Which countries were in most competition?
Due to industrialization. Competition between France and Germany and Britain and Germany.
What is Pan-Slavism? How is it applied to the war?
movement created by Russia to draw together all Slavic nations. Russia joined up with Serbia to fight Austria-Hungary.
What is the event that started the war and what is its title?
assassination of the archduke- Balkan Crisis
List the events in the "chain reaction" that began World War I.
1- A-H blames Serbia for murders and makes harsh demands, 2- Serbia refuses, 3-A-H declares war on Serbia, 4- Russia promises to come to Serbia's aid, 5-Germany declares war on Russia, 6-Germany declares war on France, 7-England declares war on Germany
A few inventions of WWI
machine gun, tank, submarine, airplane, poison gas
Where did trench warfare take place? What were the advantages? Disadvantages?
Along the western front. Soldiers were protected, but neither side could make any significant gains and trench warfare allowed little ground to be gained.
What is a good example of victims of the total war in the time of WWI?
In a _____ war, all nation's resources go into the war effort.
Governments ________ men, ___________ and raised ______.
drafted, borrowed money, and taxes.
How were civilians affected by the total war? (4 effects)
1- government rations on goods supply, 2-governments used the press to print propaganda, 3-women take soldiers' jobs, 4- women went into armed services as nurses
What was a major turning point of the war that changed the leader from the Central Powers to the Allied Powers?
entry of the US into the war
Why did the US enter the war? (3 reasons)
Unrestricted submarine warfare, Zimmerman note, and British propaganda
How did the US attempt to maintain neutrality in the war before its entry? When did it make an exception?
The US had tried to remain neutral during the war. They did however carry supplies to the Allied powers.
What Allied power withdrew from the war in 1917? Why?
Russia- new leaders (Lenin) came in and signed a treaty with Germany that took them out of the war
On what date was an armistice signed?
November 11, 1918
Results of the war: economies of Europe
Factories, farms, and homes destroyed; The Allies insist that Germany pay reparations; nations had huge war debts to pay
Results of the war: human casualties
8.5 million people died, 17 million wounded, and disease/famine threatened many regions
Results of the war: Germany's punishment (4 results)
Germany had to admit guilt and pay huge war reparations. There would be self determination to the once colonies of Germany. The signers of the treaty would join League of Nations.
Did Wilson's 14 points succeed? Why or why not?
No- The other Allies just wanted to punish Germany.
causes of the Russian revolution of 1905
1) low spirits after the defeat in 1904 war with Japan, 2) poverty + bad working conditions, 3) corrupt government, and 4) Bloody Sunday killing
results of the Russian revolution of 1905
1) The October Manifesto- new reforms and freedoms, 2) Nicholas II set up the Duma, 3) He dissolves 1st Duma because its leaders criticize the government, 4) New Duma set up with limited power
Why did Russia join the war? (3 reasons)
There was a feeling that WWI could unify Russia. Expansionists saw it as a time to gain land. Liberals and socialists hoped that the alliance with France & England would cause the adoption of democratic policies.
Why did Russia get out of the war?
People eventually demanded the end of the war due to food shortages, loss of millions of men and defeats in battles.
How did Czar Nicholas respond to the people wanting the war to stop? Why?
He ignored them because he wanted to stay on the good side of Britain and France.
What happened during the 1st Russian revolution?
occurred when Czar Nicholas was driven from his home and moderate leaders took over.
What happened to the leaders of the 1st Russian revolution?
They were overthrown because they would not pull Russia out of the war and because the people's problems continued as if the monarchy was still in place.
What happened during the 2nd Russian revolution?
occurred when the moderate leaders were overthrown by Lenin- a Marxist- who promised the people "peace, bread, and land"
follower of Karl Marx. Saw that the peasants were rising up and encouraged them to continue. Lenin's promise of land was really a promise to let them keep what they had taken. One of his government's first acts was to take Russia out of WWI. The economy was reorganized under "war communism" where the government owned most industry, railroad, and the banks.
What was Lenin's political party called and what did they become?
Bolsheviks- Communist Party
The economy was reorganized under "______ _______"
Describe the new Russian gov't after the Revolution.
Workers and peasants were allowed to elect officials that were then controlled by Lenin and his regime. The Communist government discouraged any religious worship and adopted atheism. It also forbade Russians to recognize class distinction, people encouraged to call each other comrade. The Communist Party was the only allowed. All papers and communication was censored.
Describe the new Russian economy under Lenin.
The NEP- The gov't controlled the banks, large industry, and foreign trade, and peasants can sell surplus grain and small manufacturers resume control over their industry. Under the NEP the economy improved.
Describe the Soviet Union
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, also called Soviet Union, made up of diverse Asian and European people, and the Russia the largest republic, controlled it.
Stalin and the Rise of Totalitarian States
After Lenin dies in 1924, Stalin takes control of USSR. He remains in control of industry. Answers 4 economic questions. NEP held some capitalist ideas; Stalin wanted a true socialist economy.
Describe the economic side of life in a totalitarian state.
There was a growth of industry/military, a low standard of living, and a shortage of food and consumer goods.
Describe the political side of life in a totalitarian state.
One party dictatorship, total government control of citizens, industry, and agriculture, and usage of propaganda to win support.
Describe the art side of life in a totalitarian state.
Censorship of books, music, and art, all art praises communism, and obstruction of all artists and writers by secret police.
Describe the religious side of life in a totalitarian state.
Government war on religion, takeover on houses of worship, and the secret police control religious worship.
Describe the social side of life in a totalitarian state.
Fear of secret police, an upper class of communist party members, free education and health care, public transportation, and women have jobs.
The first 5-year plan after the Russian Revolution
Stalin did not want Soviet Union to be destroyed economically by more industrialized nations. The first plan called for Russia to build its industry. In five years, industrial output should increase by 20%. Agricultural output was to increase 150%. To accomplish, gov't takes over all farms and industry.
The second 5-year plan after the Russian Revolution
The plan served to make the Soviet Union economically independent of west. People placed on collective farms. Others relocated to cities to labor in mines, factories, and construction sites, and worked long hours for little pay.
What were collective farms? Were they good or not good for the people? Why or why not?
They were massive farms used to increase industrial output. They were resisted by the people. Farmers burned crops, killed livestock because they didn't want it to go to the government. Production dropped drastically, and people were starving.
How did education change after the Russian Revolution? How did the change affect the people?
People given free public education, literacy rate increased, people got professional jobs, and had to pay high taxes.
How did Stalin's government repress the people?
Stalin ruled through terror, sent secret police out to track down anyone he thought was dissident, prisoners were tortured for confessions, held mock trials, and people found guilty were killed or sent to prison.
What were the results of the Treaty of Versailles?
Germany had economic problems.
Why did the League of Nations fail? Why is our United Nations more effective?
It had little power. The United Nations has its own peacekeeping force and can enforce its laws.
How did nationalism between the two wars cause problems?
Nationalist movements struggled to throw off foreign domination.
During which time period did women in Europe and America gain the right to vote?
The global economy experienced a severe downturn. When did this occur and why?
This occurred when the stock market crashed in 1929, which set in motion the Great Depression in America. Because America invested in Europe after WWI, the two economies were tied together, and then both economies experienced the downturn.
What party took over in Italy and why?
Italy experienced economic problems after the war. There was no cohesion in the Italian government and they didn't know how to solve their problems. Mussolini told the people what they wanted to hear and they put him (and fascism) into power.
What party was gaining favor in Germany and why?
Nazis- offered to solve problems of Germany.
What group gained control in Japan between the two wars?
What unfulfilled goals did Italy have after the war?
Italy felt it should have gained the land it was promised by the Allies prior to the war. It gained much less area than was promised.
What unfulfilled goals did Japan have after the war?
Japan was angry because the Allies did not recognize its territorial claims in China.
What unfulfilled goals did China have after the war?
China was angry because Japan had been given control over former German territories in China.
What unfulfilled goals did Russia have after the war?
Russia was angry over the reestablishment of Poland and the creation of independent Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania on the lands that had once been part of the Russian Empire.
After the war, which countries split up and which countries were formed?
the Ottoman Empire and Austria Hungary split up, allowing several new nations to be formed: Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, Austria, and Hungary.
What economic problems arose in Europe after WWI (3)?
Soldiers returning from war needed jobs. Nations had war debts to pay. Cities had to rebuild. Less demand for raw materials. Stock market speculation. Excessive use of credit. Overproduction of consumer goods. Laissez-faire economics. Global Economic Problems.
In the decade that followed World War I, European countries had
war debts to pay.
Why did the US experience an economic boom after the war, while European countries had a shaky economic recovery?
The US had nothing to rebuild because the battle was not fought on our soil and no war debts to pay.
The US became what after the war?
the world's leading economic power
4 ways the depression had an impact
1) banks/ businesses close- millions out of work and drastically decreasing good production, 2) worldwide countries raised import tariffs to protect their own markets, causing a decline in global trade, 3) people lose faith in democracy and capitalism, 4) new leaders emerged and supported intense nationalism, militarism, and a return to authoritarian rule
Women's Suffrage- at what age did women (and men) in England vote at until 1928?
characteristics of the Lost Generation of writers, artists, and musicians
expressed a loss of hope, rejected former rules, and moral values, and became disillusioned with many of the world's citizens
7 aspects of fascism
strong military, censorship and control of news, state control of the economy, extreme nationalism, strict discipline, ruled by a dictator, blind loyalty to a leader, and the use of violence and terror
Who said "All thinking men are atheists."
Who said "War is not won by victory."
Post WWI Attitude in Italy
Italians believed that the agreement after WWI was unfair. They believed that they should have received more territory for the amount of Italian soldiers lost in war- Allies break promise. They also suffered severe economic problems in the 1920's: unemployment and high prices.
In the beginning, the Fascist party was made up mostly of
Fascists believed in _____ and ______.
nationalism and militarism
The most important goal of fascism was to replace a democratic government with
Mussolini's police force called the
To achieve their goals the Fascists
beat up and sometimes killed people who oppose them
How did Mussolini convert the government from democratic to fascist?
He outlawed all political parties. Under his orders secret police arrested critics of the government. The government regulated all economic activities. Newspaper and radio were censored. Schools were taken over- students were taught that the individual exists to serve the state.
Effects of Mussolini's new fascist government
He did strengthen industry and agriculture; however wages fell, increased work hours, and taxes rose.
The democratic government Germany tried to establish after WWI
The Weimar Republic
Problems that faced the Weimar Republic
Hatred of Weimar leaders by German people for agreeing to Treaty of Versailles. Widespread unemployment. Inflation. Burden of huge war reparations.
What makes the Nazi plan appealing to the Germans?
People out of work and facing serious economic problems because of Great Depression. Democracy won't work.
Hitler was originally from
Hitler served in the _____ army during WWI.
Hitler was decorated for _____ during WWI.
Hitler was a ________ and a ________ public speaker.
highly skilled politician, charismatic
What ideas did Hitler relate to his audiences? (4)
Germans were a superior race destined to rule the world. Germans were not responsible for defeat of Germany in WWI. He claimed that Germany was betrayed by communists, socialists, and democrats. He blamed the problem of Germany on the Jews.
What was Hitler's first attempt to control Germany? What were its results?
In 1923, Hitler tried to seize the government in Bavaria. He was unsuccessful and went to jail for it. While in jail, he wrote Mein Kampf, his memoir.
Three main ideas of Nazi Germany
racism, nationalism, militarism
In 1933, Hitler became the _______ of Germany and reestablished the government as a dictatorship, called the ________.
chancellor, Third Reich
What did Hitler call himself? What did he call Germany?
Who controlled industry, agriculture, education, newspapers, and radio broadcasts in Nazi Germany?
How did Hitler influence children in the Third Reich?
Propaganda stories and the Hitler Youth Program
Hitler rebuilt the Germany army, thereby violating
the treaty of Versailles
How did Hitler accomplish his anti-Semitic agenda?
First he used education and propaganda to generate hate towards the Jews. Jewish businesses were boycotted and eventually taken away by the government and then sold to non-Jews. Nuremberg laws take away German citizenship from Jews.
How did Germans react to Hitler's rise in power and policies?
Most were pleased by the increase in German pride, military and power, and harbored little to no concern over his policies.
What were the pros to Hitler's Nazi policies?
Germany gained great power under Hitler.
What were the negatives to Hitler's policies?
The people lost all their rights. Germany also lost many artists and intellectuals that escaped for fear of persecution.
Causes of militarism in Japan (6)
Unhappiness over loss of traditions, loss of foreign markets due to great depression, unemployment, poverty among peasants, feelings of nationalism, and demand for expansion.
What were the effects of the rise of militarism in Japan? (8)
1931 attack on Chinese province, withdrawal from the League of Nations, antiwestern feelings, end of many democratic freedoms, renewed practice of traditions, increase honor for emperor, renewed expansion and efforts to control China
Who lead the fight against British control in India?
What was the first industry in India that Gandhi vanquished using his method of nonviolent resistance? What was the next?
Describe the relationship between Britain/ India and mercantilism.
Britain trying to keep India in the service of mercantilism. India was seen as a source of raw materials markets for English goals.
What was the problem in the relationship between Britain and India?
Industry remains non-existent in India- India will not be a market if they do not industrialize. England can charge whatever they want for manufactured goods.
Did Gandhi achieve his goal in the end? How did he do it?
yes- he got Britain to change its laws for several industries, and drove them out of india through nonviolent resistance.
Who is one famous employer of Gandhi's nonviolent resistance policies?
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Who was Mustafa Kemal and what was his role in the Turkish nationalistic movement?
He was a war general and war hero in turkey. After WWI he lead a Turkish nationalist movement. He overthrew the sultan, defeated western forces, and declared Turkey a republic. Called himself Kemal Ataturk.
What changes did Ataturk want and introduce? (5)
Wanted to modernize and westernize Turkey so it could survive. Islamic law replaced with European-based law. Muslim calendar replaced with a Christian calendar. People required to wear western dress. State schools set up. Arabic script was replaced with western alphabet.
Why did the Arabs resent the allies after WWI?
During WWI, many Arabs had helped Allies. In return they had been promoted independence. After war, however, Britain and France divide up Ottoman lands between themselves.
Arab nationalism and mandates
Mandates were territories administered by European powers. France had mandates in Palestine and in Iraq. In the 1920s and 1930s Arab nationalists sought to free those areas from foreign control. Arab nationalism gave rise to pan-Arabism. This movement sought a unity of all Arab people ased on their shared heritage.
Iranian nationalism and Reza Khan's takeover
Nationalists in Iran followed Turkey's lead. In 1925, Reza Khan an army officer overthrew the government and set up a new dynasty with himself as the Shah.
What changes did Reza Khan make to Iran? (5)
Factories, roads, and railroads built, army strengthened, western alphabet and dress adopted, secular schools built, Islamic law replaced by secular law.
Iranian nationalists faced strong opposition from
What is Zionism and how did it affect international relations in the Middle East?
A jewish political movement that in its broadest sense, has supported the self determination of the Jewish people in a sovereign Jewish national homeland. The situation was complex because Arab people are already living where the Jews want to establish their country. Allies had made conflicting promises during WWI. They promised the Arabs land that included Palestine, however they also promised Jews a nation in the same region. As more Jews moved to Palestine to escape persecution in the 1930's tension grew.
Chinese nationalism after WWI- what were the three rival groups?
May 4th- student movement to modernize/westernize China; communists- Marxist; republic (nationalists)- headed by Sun Yizian, then Jiang Jieshi
Which group obtained power in China after WWI? What happened to them?
The nationalists obtained power. At first the communists and the nationalists tried to work together. They realized however that they had different goals. This lead to a civil war that lasted 22 years.
3 causes of World War II regarding the League of Nations
absence of powerful nations, poor structure, no army
The Kellogg- Briand Pact
also called Pact of Paris, signed by 15 nations, pledge never to use war again, accepted by 60-plus countries, failed, no effect on wars
Causes of World War II
Kellogg- Briand Pact, Great Depression, Nationalism, Appeasement- The Munich Agreement, Militarism, Japanese Imperialism
causes of Japanese militarism
unemployment, poverty, loss of foreign markets, feelings of nationalism, and demand for expansion
causes of German militarism
due to poor economy, Hitler set aside TOV and began to rearm the arm. The military buildup created more jobs for public works. Industry profited.
Japanese imperialism- what happened?
They attacked and captured Manchuria because they needed natural resources. They created a puppet state in Manchuria. League of Nations condemns Japan's actions, and Japan withdraws from the league. Japan will invade Chinese mainland. They will take over the city of Nanjing and install a puppet government. Their invasion will be so brutal it will be known as the rape of Nanjing.
The Italian Invasion of Ethiopia
The Ethiopians resist the attack but are no match for the Italian weapons. The Ethiopian King appeals to the league- who respond by saying that nations will stop selling weapons/war materials to the Italians- economic sanctions. This is not honored by all countries. The conquest created a large Italian east African province and heightened Italian nationalism.
German imperialism- what did it take over?
captures Austria, Czechoslovakia, the Rhineland
What was the draw of German capturing the Rhineland?
It was an area rich in coal, which was needed for Germany's industry
German's capture of Poland- how was it accomplished? What was the result?
blitzkrieg- lightning war; Finally, France and England demand the attack be called off. Hitler refuses. France and England declare war on Germany.
Spanish Civil War
struggle between democracy and dictatorship took place in Spain, military officer general Francisco Franco began a revolt against the democratic government, Franco supported by Hitler and Mussolini, and in 1939 he gains control of spain, created a dictatorship and was friendly with Germany and Italy.
U.S. Neutrality Acts
Neutrality Act- 1935- Authorized the president to prohibit all arms shipment and forbid U.S. citizens to travel on ships of warring nations. Neutrality Act- 1936- Forbid extension of loans or credit to warring nations
Pact of Steel
Japan, Italy, and Germany formed Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis- They agreed to a military alliance and to not stop each other from making foreign conquests.
The Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact and immediately following it, what did Germany do?
Hitler will make a pact with Stalin. In the Nazi-Soviet pact, the two enemies agreed not to fight each other. Immediately following this pact, Germany invades Poland.
In World War II, German Troops march into Warsaw, then...
Following the takeover of Poland, war officially breaks out. Britain and France agree to defend it.
Hitler will overrun
Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Belgium, and by 1940, the Germans had entered Paris.
Hitler's capture of France and how France dealt with it
Charles de Gaulle formed a French government in exile. He called on France forces to continue fighting Germany. These "Free French" worked from England to liberate their homeland.
Turning point of WWII
Now Britain is all alone!, the Lend Lease act was signed in March 1941, it allows England and other Allies to obtain what they need on credit from the U.S., in July of 1941, FDR will extend his support by protecting England's ships from Germany's submarine attacks.
the Atlantic Charter
FDR realizes that the US will eventually be drawn into war- as a result he will have a secret meeting with Churchill. They will discuss objectives for peace after war
What were the objectives of the Atlantic Charter
solidifies alliance, fashioned after 14 points, calls for a league of nations-type organization