What were the changes in politics in the 1820's?
• 1824 the Republican Party was coming apart
• Republicans who retained Jefferson's preference for states rights became Democrats
• Republicans who believed that the national gov. should actively encourage economic development, the so-called National Republicans, became Whigs
•All leaders had to adapt to the rising idea of politics = the expression of the will of the common people rather than as an activity that 'gentlemen' conducted for them
• Republicans sought to expand suffrage in the North, Federalists did likewise in the South
• Election of 1828, Republicans now Democratic Party (Jackson for pres.)
Signs of increased democratization
• Abolition of the requirement that voters own property
• Appointive office increasingly became elective
• Electoral College turned into direct election by voters
• Developed at an uneven pace
• In 1820, both Fed. and Rep. were still organized from top down
• Women continued to be excluded from voting and free blacks could not vote
• The tendency of the times: to oppose the people or democracy had become a formula for political suicide
What was Henry Clay's American System?
• Strong banking system with easy credit
• Protective tariffs
• Federally supported internal improvements
Compare/contrast the rotation in office vs. spoil system
• Previously duties of most officeholders were simple, so supported "rotation in office" - as many plain people as possible would have a chance to work for the government
• Andrew Jackson fired nearly half of the higher civil service, esp. postmasters and customs officers
• Had an underlying partisan motive: removals concentrated in the Northeast, the stronghold of John Q. Adams
• Critics dubbed the practice of basing appointments on party loyalty the "spoils system"
Key facts about the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832
• Tariffs drove up the price of manufactured goods and threatened to reduce the sale of British textile products in the USA -- Such a reduction might eventually lower the British demand for southern cotton and cut cotton prices
• Southerners pissed, New Englanders happy
• The tariff of 1828 was set so high that it deterred foreign exporters from shipping their products to the USA, so the tariff raised little revenue
• Congress did pass slightly reduced tariff rates in 1832, but these did not come close to satisfying the South
Southern response to tariffs and 'Olive Branch' compromise?
In 1828, vice pres. Calhoun anonymously wrote the widely circulated South Carolina Exposition and Protest
• Spelled out his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that aggrieved states therefore had the right to nullify, or override the law within their borders
* 1833 Compromise (Olive Branch) Tariff lowered duties
* 'Force Bill' authorized the president to use arms to collect customs duties in South Carolina
Key facts about Jackson and the Bank of the USA
Bank was widely blamed for precipitating Panic of 1819
• At a time of mounting attacks on privilege, the bank was clearly privileged - "a few monied capitalists" - Jackson
• In 1832, took steps to destroy the Bank so it could never be revived
• Spurred the rise of the Whig Party, stimulated popular interest in politics, and contributed to a severe economic downturn
• Democrats in 1836 pressured Jackson to sign the Deposit Act, which increased the number of deposit banks
• Jackson issued the Specie Circular, which said only specie (gold or silver) could be accepted in payment for public lands
Key facts about the rise of the Whig Party
• Jackson's vague Jeffersonianism was replaced by suspicion of federal aid for internal improvements and protective tariffs, positions against the Bank of the US and nullification
• Crushing of nullification pushed southerners to Whig party, since they opposed Jackson
• Social reformers in north wanted to improve American society by ending and elevating public morality
• Shared sympathy for active government programs tended to unite Whigs and reformers
Key facts about Martin Van Buren
• Van Buren was Jackson's fave for the election in 1836
• Won easily, including surprisingly in the South
Key facts about the Panic of 1837
Severe depression following speculative boom of 1835-1836
* Jackson's policy of removing fed. deposits from the Bank of the US and placing them in state banks caused boom
• Then in 1837, prices began to tumble, and bank after bank suspended specie payments
• Economy crashed again in 1839
• The Bank of US, which continued to operate as a state bank w/ a Pennsylvania charter, failed
• More severe than the panic of 1819
"Tippecanoe and Tyler too"
• Democrats ridiculed William Harrison as a old man who lived in a log cabin
• Whigs said Harrison had been a rugged frontiersman, the hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe, and a defender of all frontier people who lived in log cabins
• Refusing to publish a platform, the Whigs ran a "hurrah campaign"
• Used log cabins for HQ, sang log-cabin songs, gave out log-cabin cider, and called their newspaper Log Cabin
• For a slogan, they trumpeted "Tippecanoe and Tyler too:
• Harrison had a clear victory
What was the Second Great Awakening?
Began in 1790s
• As it spread to frontier states, revivals were typified by the rise of camp meetings
• These were gigantic revivals in which members of several denominations gathered together for up to a week to hear revivalists proclaim the Second Coming of Jesus was near and the time for repentance was now
• The divine spirit flowed in revivals, but humans made them happen
• Can will yourself free of sin
• ideas came to dominate "evangelical" Protestantism- forms of Protestantism that focused on the need for an emotional religious conversion
• A society that celebrated "self-made" individuals embraced Finney's assertion that, even in religion, people could make of themselves what they chose
Key facts about the rise of Mormonism?
New denomination of Christianity, highly controversial
• Started by Joseph Smith
• Appeal lay in the positioning of America in the center of Christian history and partly in Smith's assertion that he had discovered a new revelation
• In 1843 Smith said he received another revelation, this one sanctioning the Mormon practice of having multiple wives, of polygyny
• Its practice among Mormons was a poorly kept secret
• Helped ruin Smith's self-image
• Smith thought Mormons needed to separate themselves from society
Key points about 'temperance'
• Temperance = total abstinence from alcoholic beverages or moderation in their use
• intensified during 2nd quarter of 19th century
• Evangelical Protestants created the American Temperance Society, the first national temperance organization -- Very popular
• Almost always headed by men, 1/3 - ½ of their members were women, who found in temperance a public outlet for their moral energies
• Targeted moderate drinkers in the laboring class
• Appealed to those Washingtonians who were impacted by Great Awakening
• Won the battle- consumption dropped dramatically
What was the American Colonization society?
• Antislavery organization founded between 1800 and 1830 was the American Colonization society
• Proposed a plan for gradual emancipation, with compensation to the slave owner, and the shipment of freed blacks to what became the nation of Liberia in Africa
• Colonization was a hard-hearted and soft-head thing; its proponents assumed that blacks were a degraded race that did not belong in the USA, and underestimated the South's dependence on slavery
What were the names of some prominent abolitionists?
Quaker Benjamin Lundy began a newspaper called the Genius of Universal Emancipation
• William Lloyd Garrison, in 1831, launched his own newspaper The Liberator
• Escaped slave Frederick Douglass and a remarkable freed slave who named herself Sojourner Truth provided eloquent lectures against slavery
* Theodore Dwight Weld was another abolitionist that argued constantly with Garrison
Who were the Grimke sisters?
• Daughters of a South Carolina slaveholder
• Embarked on an antislavery lecture tour of New England
• Were controversial b/c they drew mixed audiences to their lectures at a time when it was thought indelicate for women to speak before male audiences
• Clergymen chastised the Grimke sisters for lecturing men rather than obeying them
• Such criticism backfired, since the Grimkes increasingly took up the cause of women's rights
• Garrison espoused women's rights and urged that women be given positions in the American Anti-Slavery Society
How did the Abolitionist movement parallel the early rise of womens' rights?
• Spread of reform movements provided women with unprecedented opportunities for public activity w/o challenging the belief that their proper sphere was the home
* the discrimination women encountered w/in the abolition movement impelled them to make women's rights a separate cause
• In 1840s, Lucy Stone became the first abolitionist to lecture solely on women's rights
What was the Seneca Falls convention?
• Mott and Stanton organized a women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York
• The Seneca Falls convention's Declaration of Sentiments, modeled on the Dec. of Independence, began with the assertion that "all men and women are created equal"
• Convention passed 12 resolutions
• Stanton's lobbying helped secure passage of a New York, law allowing married women to own property
Key points about prisons and insane asylum reforms?
• 1820s, reformers tried to combat poverty, crime, and insanity by establishing highly regimented institutions
• Penitentiaries, workhouses, and insane asylums all reflected the same optimistic belief that deviancy could be erased by resettling deviants in the right environment
• "Right" environment = regimentation: order and strict rules
What were some key points about Utopian communities such as New Harmony?
• The belief that individuals could live perfectly took its most extreme form in the Utopian communities
• British industrialist and philanthropist Robert Owen founded the New Harmony community in Indiana
• Saw the problem of the early industrial age as social rather than political
• If social arrangements could be perfected, all vice and misery would disappear; human character was formed by people's surroundings and environment
• Clashed w/ the clergymen, who still believed that original sin, not environment, shaped human character
* Hopedale community was another example
What was Brook Farm?
• Brook Farm, near Boston, was the creation of a group of religious philosophers, called transcendentalists, including Ralph Waldo Emerson
• had started as Unitarians but then sought to revitalize Christianity by proclaiming the infinite spiritual capacities of ordinary women and men
• Brook Farm = a retreat and a model
• Philosophers spent their evenings in lofty musings after a day perspiring in the cabbage patch