Sociology 1101 - Test 2 Final Review

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D. Status set

At a given time you occupy a number of statuses. These statuses make up your:
a. master status
b. role set
c. achieved statuses
d. status set

C. Ascribed status

What concept refers to a social position that is received at birth or involuntarily assumed later in life?
a. passive role
b. master status
c. ascribed status
d. achieved status

B. Role strain

Which concept refers to the tension among roles connected to a single status?
a. role conflict
b. role strain
c. role ambiguity
d. role exit

B. Social construction of reality

Which concept is used to designate the process by which people creatively shape reality as they interact?
a. status interaction
b. social construction of reality
c. interactive reality
d. role reality

C. Situations defined as real are real in their consequences

The Thomas theorem states that:
a. a role is as a role does
b. people rise to their level of incompetence
c. situations defined as real are real in their consequences
d. people know the world only through their language

B. Dramaturgical analysis

The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance is referred to as:
a. ethnomethodology
b. dramaturgical analysis
c. the Thomas theorem
d. the social construction of reality

B. Without social experience, a child is incapable of thought or meaningful action

The tragic case of Anna, the isolated girl studied by Kingsley Davis, shows that:
a. humans have most of the same instincts found in other animal species
b. without social experience, a child is incapable of thought or meaningful action
c. personality is present in humans at birth
d. many human instincts disappear after the first few years of life

D. Personality

What concept refers to a person's fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking, and feeling?
a. socialization
b. behavior
c. human nature
d. personality

C. id

Our basic drives or needs as humans are reflected in Freud's concept of:
a. superego
b. ego
c. id
d. generalized other

D. Cognition, or how people think and understand

Jean Piaget's focus was on:
a. how children develop their motor skills
b. how children are stimulated by their environment
c. the role of heredity in shaping human behavior
d. cognition, or how people think and understand

C. Moral reasoning

The focus of Lawrence Kohlberg's research was:
a. cognition
b. the importance of gender in socialization
c. moral reasoning
d. all of the above are correct

A. Girls and boys typically assess situations as right and wrong using different standards

Carol Gilligan extended Kohlberg's research, showing that:
a. girls and boys typically assess situations as right and wrong using different standards
b. girls are more interested in right and wrong than boys are
c. boys are more interested in right and wrong than girls are
d. the ability to assess situations as right and wrong typically develops only as young people enter the teenage years

A. That part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image

George Herbert Mead considered the self to be:
a. that part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
b. the presence of culture within the individual
c. basic drives that are self-centered
d. present in infants at the time of their birth

C. Social experience

Mead placed the origin of the self in:
a. biological drives
b. genetics
c. social experience
d. the functioning of the brain

A. Technology

Gerhard Lenski claimed that which of the following has the greatest power to shape a society?
a. technology
b. social conflict
c. human ideas
d. human desire for change

B. Horticultural and pastoral

The first type of society to generate a material surplus is:
a. hunting and gathering
b. horticultural and pastoral
c. agrarian
d. industrial

D. All of the above are correct

Karl Marx believed that the industrial-capitalist system was:
a. very productive
b. concentrating wealth in the hands of a few
c. giving rise to two great classes: capitalists and proletarians
d. all of the above are correct

B. Social conflict between classes

The driving force of social change, according to Marx, is:
a. advancing technology
b. social conflict between classes
c. dominant ideas
d. the way in which society is held together

A. Irrational; rational (Karl Marx absolutely hated capitalism, and Weber saw it as useful/helpful)

Karl Marx considered capitalism to be ___________, but Max Weber argued that capitalism was very ___________
a. irrational; rational
b. rational; irrational
c. unproductive; productive
d. productive; unproductive

C. Mechanical solidarity; organic solidarity (Mechanical solidarity shifts into organic solidarity)

Looking over the long course of history, Durkheim claimed that societies change as __________ gives way to ___________
a. Gesselschaft; Gemeinschaft
b. individualism; collective conscience
c. mechanical solidarity; organic solidarity
d. organic solidarity; mechanical solidarity

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