← Wainright Final Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Luther German priest who became angry with the Catholic Church due to its manipulation of the masses through indulgences. He argued against the Catholic Church, and people began to listen to his ideas. Ninety-five Theses The document where Martin Luther denounced the sale of indulgences in the Roman Catholic Church Charles V emperor of Holy Roman Empire, nephew of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain Peace of Augsburg The settlement between Charles V and the Lutherans which stated that both Christianity and Lutheranism were allowed in the Holy Roman Empire, and that German princes decide which one would be followed believed; symbolizes end of Holy Roman Emperor's dominance in Germany Henry VIII King known for separating England from the Catholic Church and starting The Church of England. He did this because he could not get a divorce due to the fact that he had consummated his marriage. Act of Supremacy It was issued by Elizabeth's father, Henry VIII, which made him the head of the Church of England Society of Jesuits Created by Ignatius Loyola after the Reformation primarily to atract converts. They used reason and logic and went through much education training, and were able to out-argue many adversairies, and Catholicism reached as far as the South Asian Islands. A member is Matteo Ricci Thirty Year's War BItter religious struggle between Catholics and protestants. It was an international war in which foreign powers tried to claim parts of German land for themselves.In he end it ended religious conflict in Europe and It sparked a period of state building. Also devastated and divided Germany into countries Louis XIV The model absolute monarch of Europe! Built Versailles; had ministers of war and finance; revoked the Edit of Nantes; increased power of intendantes Peter the Great Romanov tsar, influenced by the European Enlightenment and sought to modernize Russia-traveled to Europe where he learned how to build ships(and sent people back to teach others), cities, and dress like Europeans. Peter The Great reformed the army by offering better pay, drafting peasants who served for life, providing his forces with extensive training and weapons. He overthrew the gov bureaucracy to facilitate tax collection and improve efficiency. He had trouble trying to find a successor because his son, Alexi, had little desire and used his ill health as an excuse not to rule. Catherine the Great Founded orphanages, hospitals and schools for the privileged kids (schools for girls). Thought about being nicer to the serfs. Owed her power to the nobles. She slept her way to the top to get their help and to kill her husband. Catherine the Great Convenes a commission to codify laws, but conservative nobles don't like her ideas; too liberal. So she distracts them by going to war with the Ottomans. She Expanded Russia to the Black Sea and got a promise from the sultan that he would protect his Christian subjects Copernicus Introduced the idea of a heliocentric universe during the Scientific Revolution. Isaac Newton Outlined his views on the natural world in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. Argued that a law of universal gravitation regulates the motions of bodies throughout the universe. Laws of motion and gravity. Heliocentric Theory stated the sun, rather than the earth (from Ptolemy's theory), was the center of the universe and the other planets, including the earth, revolved around it. This created religious tension and many people had a hard time accepting his theory, although it made more sense than Ptolemy's theory. Galileo first to use the telescope to look into the Universe. He concluded that the moon was not gaseous and had mountains that showed it could be terrestrial land. He added ideas to Johannes Kepler's New Astronomy with being able to see the planets he showed that Kepler's mathematical reasoning were correct. John Locke widely known as the Father of Liberalism, influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, social contract theory, individuals form a societal government Voltaire Enlightment thinker, represented persecution of religious minorities and censorship of royal officals (Wanted freedom of speech and religion) Jean-Jacques Rousseau French enlightenment thinker that said the idealist society would be where all individuals would make laws/ have a say in the government. Montesquieu Wanted separation of powers and checks and balances; made it so no other groups got more power than one another Adam Smith Scottish economist who established the capitalist economy where private parties make their own goods and set their own prices. There was a free-market economy with no government interference. Wrote The Wealth of Nations and used the term laissez faire Magna Carta English proclamation that limited the power of the king and protected the people of the empire from unfair punishment. Habeas Corpus Idea that one is innocent until proven guilty. One must be brought before a judge to be decided whether he is guilty or not Wiliam and Mary Had to agree to accept the English bill of rights & constitutional monarchy ushering in the Glorious Revoltuion. English Bill of Rights Act of the English Parliament in 1689. Stated that Englishment had certain unalienable rights, Roman Catholics could not rule England, and reduced the absolute power of the King. The Parliament must have a voice in government. Conservatism viewing society as an organism, change is natural with historical development. Traditionalist that like the old ways and social hierarchy. Liberalism belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights. Liberalism first became a powerful force during the Age of Enlightenment. Nationalism Extreme patriotism, feeling superior over countries, being really enthusiastic about your country. National Flags, anthems, etc. Giuseppe Mazzini founder of the young italy group, this group later became very involved in italian nationalist views and helped work towards a independant Italian nation state John Stuart Mill supporter of early liberalism. He thought that everybody should have economic and intellectual freedom and that powerful minorities shouldn't be able to control the rights of others. Edmund Burke English political philosopher; conservative who approved the American Revolution (ex. of natural change) but denounced the French Revolution (chaotic assault on society)- condemned radical or revolutionary change which he believed could only lead to anarchy. William Wilberforce leading spokesman of the movement to end the slave trade A Vindication of the Rights of Woman written by Mary Wollstoneraft, she argued that women possessed all rights men did Mary Astell Famous author that supported woman's rights. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Began to build a movement for women's rights and her conference passed twelve resolutions Zionism belief or movement that encouraged all the Jews to move to their holy land in Palestine, modern day Israel. Congress of Vienna A conference of Ambassadors that met in Vienna. Their objective was to try and solve the many problems arising from the French Revolution, Napoleonic wars Klemens von Metternich minister of Austria. This prince returned sovereignty to Europe's Royal families, restored them to the thrones they had lost during the Napoleonic era, and created a diplomatic order based on a balance of power that prevented any one state from domination the others. Metternich Who's main goal was to suppress national consciousness because he saw it as a threat to the Austrian empire? He was the main spokesman at The Congress of Vienna. Bismarck Wealthy landowner appointed as prime minister of Prussia. Reformed and expanded Prussian army. Provoked wars with Denmark, Austria, and France. Caused country to be very nationalistic after crushing enemy forces. Italian Unification The Austrians ruled the north, and the Spanish ruled the south. However, Mazzini's Young Italy spread ideas of independence and making a national state. Cavour was a political leader close to the King of Sardinia. He combined forces with advocates of independence and expelled the Austrians out of northern Italy due to an alliance with France. In the south, Garibaldi made an army of red shirted passionate nationalists and overthrew Spanish rule, making the Kingdom of Italy. Lutheranism First Protestant form of Christianity, started during _____ 's protests against the Catholic Church. It is still a prominent sect of Christianity today. Luther Started the Protestant Reformation, and by doing so forever changed the role that religion would play in Europe and the entire world frame of reference social class, gender, job, educational background, religion, personal interests and hobbies... what a person is influenced by historical context The society a person lives in, the society's values, present political and economic status speaker the voice that is telling the story/document (not just the name). Frame of reference info. occassion the time, place, current situation, and context of a story/document when it was written audience Who the document was intended for, who would be interested in reading the document purpose why the author is writing subject the main idea of the article tone feeling or manner of expression used by the author (ex. cold, dreamy, encouraging, sad, joyful, somber, etc.) Teotihuacan Largest early city in Mesoamerica and when Mesoamerica declined it became a target. Attacks on the city led to era of militarization and empire building in Mesoamerica. Bernal Diaz del Castillo A soldier in the Spanish Army. He described Tenochtitlan at its peek. He thought the two most impressive sights were: the markets and the temples. Tula Capital of the Toltec empire. Located just north of Mexico City, had thin soil and little rainfall. Shared architect as from Mayans. Mexica Nomadic group that became Aztecs. Mesoamerican empire that came to power in the mid 1200s and used sacrifices to "keep the earth spinning." Tenochtitlan Capital of the Aztec empire, located on lake Texcoco. lake offered many advantages ( supplies, making of chinampas, natural defense) Chinampa system the way of farming of the Mexica people that involved taking the fertile mud from the lake bottom and using it as soil to plant crops it. The soil was so fertile that you could harvest up to seven times in one year. Triple Alliance between Mexica, Texcoco, and Tlacopan; main objective was to recover tribute from conquered societies Tezcatlipoca the Aztec god of giving and taking life and the patron deity of warriors Huitzilopochtli the Aztec warrior god Chucuito dominated highlands region of South America, depended on cultivation of alpacas and llamas, exchanged wool and potatoes for maize and coco leaves. Pachacuti The Inca ruler (1438-1471). launched a series of military campaigns to extend Inca rule. He extended Inca control over the northern and southern highlands. He soon moved to Cuzco and then he began his construction on Inca roads, he built the best-designed roads ever made (until modern time) quipu an array of small chords of various colors and lengths that were attached to a smaller chord, it was a counting system used to help remember information like population, state property, taxes, labor services, and historical info Cuzco The city that was made the capital of the Inca empire by Pachacuti. It had about 40,000 inhabitants living both in the city and in the surrounding suburbs. Inti the Inca's main deity, the sun god Nan Madol A massive stone palace and administrative center on the island of Pohnpei in the Caroline Islands. It was primarily built from 1200 to 1600 by the Sandeleur dynasty, and it is composed of ninety-three artificial islets that are protected by seawalls and breakwaters on three sides ali'i nui the high class of priests in Hawaii, had many exclusive rights marae A type of distinct architecture of the early Pacific societies that was used for ceremonial and temple purposes. It had several terraced floors and a rock or coral wall marking the boundaries of the holy space. Ming The last pure dynasty in china, started by Hong Wu. Hongwu he leader of the Ming dynasty erased all the Mongols ways; made everything Confucian again Zheng He Yongle's right-hand eunuch, he was entrusted with commanding the hundreds of treasure ships that sailed around the ports of the Eastern Hemisphere. eunuch, 6' 4", built really big, Muslim, left the court to go out, admiral of the fleet, from nan keng, and built fleets, recruited his own sailors, soldiers, and guides, went to southst asia, india, arabia, africa, brought back a lot of tribute. He was diplomatic with the people he encountered, spreading the name of China throughout the Indian ocean region and southeast Asia. He resorted to military force only when necessary. This brought criticism from many Chinese people who believed that the only acceptable relationship with foreigners was tributary. Mandarins Officers for the central government that went out and check on local officials to ensure they were doing their job the way the central government wanted them to do. Yongle Encyclopedia Has all important information about China including famous literature, art and history Fernando of Aragon/ Isabel of Castile their married united the two wealthiest Iberian realms. Known as the Catholic Kings. They sponsored Christopher Columbus's quest for the west route to China. Authority was shown past Iberia. hint*(Aragon and Castile) reconquista Fernando and Isabella completed the ______ by conquering kingdom of Granada and absorbing it into their state Bartolomeau Dias Portugese explorer, first European to round the southern tip of Africa and enter the Indian Ocean in 1488. went back to Portugal after entering Indian Ocean and did not reach India. Vasco de Gama Portugese explorer. In 1497, he sailed to India (around Africa) and brought back spices. First European explorer to reach India. Christopher Columbus sailed to the americas in 1492, was really looking for a cheaper way to trade goods in asian markets. Brunelleschi A Florentine architect who reinvinted equipment and designs for a large dome. He overlooked another dome on the cathedral of Florence, but the people of Florence took the building of his dome as a symbol of the city's wealth and leadership in cultural and artistic affairs. Donatello (1386-1466) sculptor, depicted images in natural poses that reflected actual working on human muscles. Important Sculpture- "David" in bronze Machiavelli Italian writer during the renaissance. Worked for a powerful family and wrote a book (The Prince) on how to be respected in politics by balancing fear(power) and being loved by the people. Michelangelo 1475-1564) sought to depict their subjects in natural poses that reflected the actual workings of human muscles rather than awkward and rigid postures often found in earlier sculptures he represented the emotions of their subjects.The David and the Sistine Chapel Raphael Famous Renaissance Painter, most famous painting is the School of Athens Jan Van Eyck Famous painter born in Belgium in 1390. He invented oil painting Mirandola tried to harmonize the different teachings of Plato, Aristotle, Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Zorastrianism among others in his book Oration on the Dignity of Man. His efforts failed because of faulty information and misinterpretations Leonardo da Vinci Famous artist, painted in three dimensions rather than two. Painted pictures depicting Christianity due to heavy influence of religion during the time. Albrecht Durer watercolors, engravings and nature, the Da Vinci of the Northern Renaissance Towns people Which group was a monarch's best ally? Tribute What type of system did the Aztec use to control neighbors? Petrarch Father of humanism Toltec Which group did the Aztecs look up to? Gold What type of economical famine plagued Europe in middle ages? Portugal Which European country led the way in exploration? Hernan Cortes Spanish conqueror that conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico, and built the new capital city-Mexico City on top of Tenochtitlan Motecuzoma II Aztec Ruler during the time Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs and that was taken hostage and later killed. Francisco Pizarro The Spanish conqueror who went into South America and destroyed the Inca Empire for Spanish colonization in Peru Atahualpa He was the king of the Inca Empire. He was captured by Pizarro and was spared until he gave Pizarro a large quantity of gold. Then they later killed him. Prince Henry the Navigator from Portugal; conquered the Moroccan port of Ceuta. He Sponsored voyages down west African coast. He had a school of navigation: very popular and was the best there was. He wanted to Christianize the world Marco Polo his travels created interest in exploration; Columbus carried his discoveries with him to help guide him Afonso de Albuquerque He was a portuguese explorer. He conquered the Port of Goa, Melaka or present day Malaysia, Spice Islands (Moluccas). He established portuguese colonies in the Indian Ocean. Ferdinand Magellan Spain (actually Portuguese, but Ferdinand and Isabella commissioned him to go on a trip around the world), 1521, Circumnavigated the world, He got killed along with a lot of his crew Pedro Cabral Portugal, 1500, Coast of South America, With Amerigo Vespucci (travel companion- who the Americas are named after because he was the cartographer) Glovanni Caboto UK, 1497, New England Coast, "John Cabot", The south was already claimed, and the Canada area was free land and no wars would be fought Henry Hudson Netherlands, 1609, North America, Hudson Bay and River (New York area- Dutch colony for a while (new Holland) Jacques Cartier France, 1534, St. Lawrence Seaway, Establish a lot of ports and stuff in Canada Captain James Cook English explorer who extensively explored the the South Pacific and many Polynesian islands. Legazpi Spanish explorer who explored and conquered the phillipines, he named the islands after King Phillip II of spain, conquered most of it in 1575, Cebu and Manila, very easy battles. Jan Pieterzoon A dutch explorer who founded Batavia on the island of Java in 1619, Java worked as an entrepot for the VOC Vitus Bering Danish explorer employed by Russia to look for a northeast passage in 1725 and 1733. Sailed the Bering Strait and reached the Kamchatka peninsula. Thomas Peters Selected as spokesmen for 200 black families, he went to london to petition for better treatment, he escaped to Nova Scotia with his family and many other had escaped two times before Sunni Ali Songhay Ruler, consolidated Songhay empire. Built an administrative and military apparatus (structure) appointed governors who oversaw affairs. Created an imperial navy who patrolled the Niger River (important because was a "commercial highway") HIs military strength allowed his successors to extend authority and rule later on King Nzinga Memba (Afonso I) became a devout christian to establish good relationship with Portugal. wanted to end slavery and wrote letters to the king of Portugal asking him to end the slave trade. Queen Nzinga led spirited resistance against portuguese forces (conquest of angola), thought of as a king rather than a queen, mobilized central african peoples against her portuguese adversaries and allied with Dutch mariners who traded on african coast. Her aim= drive portuguese from her land, then expel dutch, and finally create a vast African empire embracing the entire lower Congo basin Dona Beatriz proclaimed to be possessed by St. Anthony to communicate messages from God, taught her followers that Jesus was a black man, later burned at stake. Olaudah Equiano a freed slave who wrote books to show the horrors of his life as a slave. He was enslaved at the age of 10 and worked in the Caribbean, Pennsylvania, and Virginia. He bought his freedom after the 7 years war. After his book was published he went on a book tour (including the UK) and gave anti-slavery speeches. mercantilism - When you export more than you import- favorable balance of trade 1. (Europe) gets trade goods from colonies and trading ports 2. control the balance of trade with the colonies 3. high tariffs (taxes) on imports Treaty of Tordesillas A treaty made between Spain and Portugal that divided the newly discovered lands at the line of demarcation (west of Cape Verde) and gave Portugal Brazil. Viceroy Were the Spanish king's representatives in the Americas who wielded considerable power as they governed either New Spain or New Castile Audiencias They were a group of university-educated laywers who formed courts. They heard appeals against the viceroy's decisions and policies and could address their concerns directly to the Spanish King. They conducted reviews of the viceroys performance at the end of their term and could subject them to harsh punishment. In the Americas they were town councils that were incharge of local administration. Peninsulares A name for people from the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal). criolles A person who was born in the Americas of Spanish or Portuguese ancestry mestizo A person who has mixed European and Native American heritage. mulattos mix between a Black (African) and a White (European) person. zambos A person born of native and African parents. metis mixture of French and Native person. Many french fur traders associated with native women in areas by their forts or posts in the Americas. Manilla Gelleons -the spanish trading ships that sailed across the pacific island between manila and mexico Quinto the one-fifth of Mexican and Peruvian silver production that was reserved for the Spanish monarchy. VOC The Dutch's joint-stock company: The United East India Company and was a monopoly of spice trade. Contributed to early network of trade. Controlled all ports of Java. It's main goal was strictly focused on profitable trade and to buy, sell, build trading posts. Virgin of Guadalupe national symbol of Mexico, gained reputation of working miracles on behalf of individuals who visited her shrine-symbolized mexican faith, powerful symbol of Mexican nationalism Ecomienda System a grant for the recruitment of laborers that allowed the Spanish settlers to compel the Taíno and other natives to work in their mines and fields. A hacienda is a type Mita System recruit workers for particularly dangerous work in the silver mines that free laborers would not accept, Spanish authorites made 1/7 of male population in native villages to work for 4 months Hacienda the organization of mining industries made opportunities for cultivators, herders and artisans to provide mining towns with food, wine, textiles, etc. Engenho was a sugar mill, argricultural and industrial enterprise, was heavy labor planting and harvesting cane, most complex business in Americas, sugar was most important export Dutch Trading Posts Java, Capetown, Colombo England Trading Posts Belize, Jamaica, Bombay, Madras, Calcutta Spain Trading Posts Hispaniola, Philippines Portuguese Trading Posts Azores, Cape Verde Islands, Goa, Macao, Cueta France Trading Post Pondicherry (place) Great Zimbabwe a very successful Sub-saharan regional kingdom. It was widly known around the world as one of the richest kingdoms in the world because of its great supply of gold which it exported to countries around the world by using the ports on the swahili coastline. Was not conquered by any European power, like Portugal, France, England, or the Dutch. Cape Town a Dutch colony esablished around the same time as the Spanish conquered the African city-state of Angola. The land for the colony was taken by the Dutch when they came to the tip of Africa as farmers. Triangular trade because of high demand for labor, a ∆ trade process created because of the 3 legs of the voyage from Europe to the Americas. 1. carried guns, horses and other manufactured goods to Africa to trade for slaves. 2. Slaves were sold are shipped to Americas. 3. Once in America, put American products on the ship to bring back to europe Middle Passage The trans-Atlantic route that carried slaves from Africa to the Americas. The second part of the triangular trade network. The Stuarts The cousins of the Tudors who ruled England for a while. Came into power after Elizabeth Tudor. Every Stuart shut out Parliament at one point. They ruled while the Glorious Revolution went on. Order: James I, Charles I, Charles II, James II Oliver Cromwell Commander of the army who opposed the king. He defeated the royalists and took power. In the end he decided to not listen to Parliament (even though that's why he fought against the crown) and became basically a tyrant.