(architecture) a low wall at the top of the entablature
a special place for the baptismal rite
an arch or series of arches against a solid wall
A pediment whose sloping or curving sides terminate before reaching the pediment's highest point, resulting in an opening that is often filled with an urn, cartouche, or other ornament
A bell tower of a church, usually, but not always, freestanding.
An open internal courtyard inclosed by the walls of a large dwelling house or other large and stately building
A small circular or polygonal structure, with windows all around the base, which opens above a larger tower or dome
An artistic principle developed in the Renaissance. based on all horizontal lines going towards one or two points on the horizon or at eye level, while vertical lines remain vertical.
a roofed arcade or gallery with open sides stretching along the front or side of a building
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
a grand building of some architectural ambition that is the headquarters of a family of some renown or of an institution
a three-part window with the center section arched and the two sides rectangular
a triangular gable between a horizontal entablature and a sloping roof
the principal floor of a large house. This floor contains the principal reception and bedrooms of the house.
a public square with room for pedestrians
a rectangular column that usually projects about a third of its width from the wall to which it is attached
Heavy stonework with a surface left rough, or with deeply channelled joints, used principally on Renaissance buildings
An arch in which the curve is a less than semicircular segment of a circle.
a raised horizontal molding, or band, in masonry. Its principal use is ornamental but it usually reflects interior structure.
large semicircular window divided up into three vertical sections
Element of a façade resembling the front of a Classical temple
Open area of a church parallel to the nave and separated from it by columns or piers.
Walkway or aisle around the apse, helped direct pilgrim traffic
Semicircular niche at east end of the nave of the church
A series of arches supported by columns or piers.
The simplest form of a vault, consisting of a continuous surface of semicircular or pointed sections. It resembles a barrel or tunnel which has been cut in half lengthwise
A unit of interior space in a building, marked off by architectural divisions. Square or rectangular building module
Stone support attached to exterior wall
In medieval churches, chapels for the display of relics that opened directly onto the ambulatory and the transept; "radiate" out of the apse
Donated/Owned by wealthy families - burial spaces or private chapels
The area of the church between a transept and main apse. It is the area where the service is sung and clergy may stand, and the main or high altar is located. In some churches there is no choir, while in others, the choir is quite large and surrounded by an ambulatory.
Row of windows in the upper part of nave wall below the roof
Area of a church where the nave, choir, and transept intersect.
A political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land
A vault produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel (tunnel) vaults. Sometimes the arches of groin vaults may be pointed instead of round.
The guilds of the Middle Ages were similar to modern labor unions where the guilds set standards for their professions and protected the interests of their members.
Romanesque style first appearing in Normandy around 950 AD and used in Britain from the Norman Conquest until the 12th century
an architectural style which evolved during the reign of Emperor Otto the Great. draws its inspiration from Carolingian and Byzantine architecture
A heavy, thickened column designed to support a heavy load
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
using multiple colors in construction of buildings
any doorway or entrance but especially one that is large and imposing.
A container for relics. Often reliquaries were in the form of caskets, though it was quite common for them to be shaped like statues or like body parts
a masonry vault with a relatively thin web and set within a framework of ribs.
an arch formed in a continuous curve
Spatial Articulation/Complex massing
articulation of a building reveals how the parts fit into the whole by emphasizing each part separately
A rectangular area which cuts across the main axis of a basilica-type building and projects beyond it. The transept gives a basilica the shape of a Latin cross and usually serves to separate the main area of the building from an apse at the end.
Supporting arch which runs across the vault from side to side, dividing the bays. it usually projects down from the surface of the vault.
The basically semicircular area enclosed by the arch above the lintel of an arched entranceway. This area is often decorated with sculpture in the Romanesque and Gothic periods.
an arched brick or stone ceiling or roof
a French estate, manor, castle or large house in the country
referring to the political, cultural, and artistic events of Elizabeth's reign, a Golden Age of British culture and influence
A room in Renaissance homes located above the entrance that often spanned the entire width of the structure. Used for entertaining
a carriage entrance leading through a building or a wall into an inner courtyard
any large and important church
a meeting place for the chapter or governing body of a monastery or a cathedral.
the east or apsidal, end of a Gothic church, including the choir, ambulatory and radiating chapels.
an architectural ornament of curved foliage used at the edge of a spire or gable
A vault which consists of fan-shaped half cones which usually meet at the center of a vault
An ornament at the tip of a pinnacle, spire or other tapering vertical architectural element.
Exterior arched, stone support placed at spring line of arched vault and joined to large piers that stand separate from the main structure and which resist lateral forces and carry loads to ground below.
an ornament consisting of a grotesquely carved figure of a person or animal
Ile de France
geographic center on historical France; center of power; Gothic art 1st appered here
a slender, pointed window.They are often separated by mullions
A style in English Gothic architecture characterized by an emphasis on vertical lines, very large windows and fan vaulting that began to emerge around 1350
a pointed termination of a spire, buttress, or other extremity of a building. Pinnacles are sometimes ornamented.
an arch with a pointed apex
a vault which is divided into 4 sections by its ribbing
An ornamental form which has four lobes or foils. It may resemble a four-petaled flower.
a circular window composed of patterned tracery arranged in petal-like formation.
a rib vault which is divided into six sections.
glass that has been colored in some way
Delicate lacelike motif carved in stone in windows of Gothic church/cathedral.
The group of buildings which collectively form the dwelling-place of a society of monks or nuns.
a large building formerly occupied by a ruler and fortified against attack
Part of a monastery; a quadrangle surrounded by covered passages. It connects the domestic parts of the monastery with the church. Cloisters are usually located on the south side of the church.
a projection from a wall which sometimes supports (or appears to support) a structural member such as a shaft.
a parapet with alternating openings (embrasures) and raised sections (merlons), often used on castle walls and towers for defense purposes.
a freestanding defense tower in a castle complex.
the principle hall in a castle or mansion
A method of construction in which the wooden frame and principal beams of a building are exposed, and the spaces between them are covered with plaster or masonry. Usually used in domestic architecture.
a type of timber roof in which the beams rest on brackets projecting from the wall
dwelling place of the lord and his family and servants
a form of balcony, often inside the great hall of a castle or manor house
a deep trench usually filled with water that surrounded a castle
the residence of a religious community
Motte and Bailey
A defensive system comprising a mound of earth (the motte) with a wooden tower on top, placed within a courtyard (the bailey)
wattle and daub
A wall construction method combining upright branches, woven with twigs and plastered or filled with clay or mud
Piers rise into segmented colonettes to create ribs of transverse, longitudinal or diagonal arches over the nave
Interior carving of wood or stone along walls, under altars, in panels, in doors. Looks like scrolls of linen
Worshippers stood here for services
Along nave; sometimes one aisle but often two. Route for Pilgrims
An open courtyard at the entrance of a church, usually surrounded by covered aisles.
an oblong building ending in a semicircular apse; adapted by Christians; Rome's Old St. Peter's
a rite or body of rites prescribed for public worship
Greek Cross Plan
Central Plan, all lengths are equal
Latin Cross Plan
Longitudinal Plan, top is shorter and bottom is longer
a church that commemorates a deceased saint or holds the remains of a martyr; an early Christian martyrium is usually centrally planned
A low projection at the western end of a church, like a porch. open and often has only one story.
A spherical triangle which acts as a transition between a circular dome and a square base on which the dome is set.
a half dome
The lowest voussoir on each side of an arch. It is where the vertical support for the arch terminates and the curve of the arch begins.
A style of art that does not employ images or idols (e.g. Buddha not being portrayed in human form in art).
Islamic art/geometric patterns that are repeated over and over
the art of beautiful handwriting
an inn in some Eastern countries with a large courtyard that provides accommodation for caravans
Centrally planned, domed mosque
Have a large dome centered over the prayer hall. smaller domes that exist off-center over the prayer hall or throughout the rest of the mosque, where prayer is not performed.
characterized by columns
Mosque which must be able to contain all the men of a community for Friday prayer
The private quarters of a house, sanctuary of a mosque or more generally an area set apart.
This is a distinctive Muslim arch. arch narrowing at the bottom like a horseshoe
Building which functions as a teaching institution primarily of Islamic sciences.
Mosque, a Muslim place of worship
Niche or marker used to indicate the direction of prayer usually in a mosque.
Tower-like structure usually associated with mosques or other religious buildings.
Type of pulpit usually found in mosques from which prayers, speeches and religious guidance are given.
Inlay of small tiles or stones used for decoration of walls or floors.
Building used for Muslim prayer, the principal unit of Islamic architecture.
the Muslim official of a mosque who summons the faithful to prayer from a minaret five times a day
direction of prayer, facing toward Mecca. In mosque architecture, the qibla wall indicates the orientation of prayer.
Qur'an or Koran
sacred book forms the divine authority for religious, social, and civil life in Islamic societies
Courtyard of a mosque
series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent, and erected by Ashoka during his reign
believed to connect the heavens and the earth and regarded as the center of the world
A plan that incorporates two or more angular changes in direction, characteristic of Sumerian architecture
a religion represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha
In Buddhist worship, walking around the stupa in a clockwise direction
Buddhist shrine that is shaped like a dome or mound
gateway in the stone fence around a stupa, located at the cardinal points of the compass
interlocking supports that allowed the roof to overhang for protection of the wooden construction from the weathering
Chinese ethical and philosophical teachings of Confucius which emphasized education, family, peace, and justice
rules in Chinese philosophy that govern spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to patterns of yin and yang and the flow of energy
A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia
a tower-shaped structure with several stories and roofs
A Chinese philosophy in which people live a simple life in harmony with nature.
Sun Goddess that rules over all things, produced by Izangi, all Japanese emperors claim to be decent from
In Shinto architecture, upward extensions of bargeboards at gable ends of the shrine, forming an X-shape.
vertical rectangular panels which can slide from side to side to redefine spaces within a room, or act as doors.
a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope.
large log weights placed on the roof to secure the thatch
private residences constructed in any one of several traditional Japanese building styles.
a translucent screen made of a wooden frame covered with rice paper
Japanese mat woven out of straw and sometimes made out of styrofoam, they are made in different shapes, colors and sizes
a niche or an alcove in a Japanese home for displaying a flower arrangement, kakemono, or other piece of art
gate that symbolizes the division between the human world and the spirit world
a long porch, usually with a roof, along one or more sides of a house