One motivating factor for the establishment of colonies in the Americas was the terrible economic situation in England in the late 1500s and early 1600s. One key adviser to Queen Elizabeth I, _________________________, argued that colonization would allow England to get rid of "idle loiterers" and "vagabonds."
The above individual felt that those who were jailed for petty crimes or debt, or those roaming the streets were ___________________ and should all be used as cheap (slave) labor in the Americas.
One of the reasons that there were so many people without economic means in Great Britain was because of the crash in the price of _____________________ in the mid 1500s. You might say that the cost of this product had gone from good to BAAh-BAAhd.
In order to still make money from the above product (I don't know why they felt sheepish about it), the elites in England seized all of the _____________________ land that was shared by average people to graze their animals or raise vegetables. We call this process the __________________________.
common, Enclosure Movement
In order to fund the expensive colonization of new settlements, England depended on wealthy and private corporations known as ______________________. These entities were largely funded by affluent families who wanted to ensure that their younger sons could still be rich, given that they could not inherit the bulk of a family's wealth due to the ________________________ law that decreed that the eldest son was supposed to inherit most of a family's property.
Joint Stock Corporations, primogeniture
The most powerful of the above corporations was known as the _________________________.
________________________, an early executive of the above corporation decreed that "Those who shall not work, shall not eat," declaring martial law.
The above decision appears to clash with the __________________________, an important document that promised the "rights of Englishmen" to settlers within the colony of Virginia.
_____________________ was sent by England to whip the settlers at Jamestown into shape. He would not let anyone leave the colony and used the so-called ____________________ against the Powhatans, murdering women, children and burning down villages and destroying fields so that the American Indians would starve.
Lord De La War, Irish Tactics
_____________________, a senior executive of the Virginia Company, was killed in a Powhatan raid of Jamestown in 1622. It was following his death that the corporation decreed that they would launch ______________________ against the Powhatans. Ironically, it was ______________________, the venerable, agile and elderly leader of the Powhatans that lead the raid. For one extra point - tell me WHY it was ironic!
John Rolfe, Perpetual War, Opachancanough
The ________________________ were the wealthy and aristocratic Englishmen that came to Virginia in the mid 1600s. They establish a permanent ruling class in the American South, one that produced most of our early Presidents.
The _______________________ was the powerful legislature AND judiciary in Virginia, a model that was used by other southern colonies in designing their governments.
House of Burgesses
The above legislative body had some important controls over the governor; they decided his salary through the so-called _______________________.
Power of the Purse
While Virginia was a ______________________colony, under the royal authority of the king, there were certain colonies that were controlled privately, by individual families. These latter colonies were called __________________.
Royal, Proprietary Colonies
One example of the above type of colony was _______________________, which was established by Lord __________________, a champion of prison reform in England, particularly with regard to debtors.
The proud colony of ______________________ was bordered on the North by the more scrappy and plucky colony of _____________________, a haven of average farmers who garnered their land via the process of being ____________________, which meant that they simply hunkered down and took it.
South Carolina, North Carolina, Squatters
______________ were the scary sermons that Puritan ministers gave in order to convince people to show up to Church on Sunday mornings.
________________ is the Latin term that suggests that if a court has already made a decision on a legal matter, future courts should "let it stand."
_____________________ were the English legal traditions that were not written down but informed both the development of the English and American legal systems.
_________________were the ages that a young man in the late colonial period would spend scraping together the money to purchase a farm.
The ________________________, while exceedingly rich were always in debt to British merchants.
The _________________________ were the powerful elite, deeply involved in international trade and ship building that held enormous control over the British and the colonial economies. They were concentrated in the ________________ region of the American colonies.
Merchant Princes, Northern
With tremendous increases in the price of __________________, most Caucasians became average farmers in the American South.
Most colonials drew on _________________ as an economic system as opposed to using actual money.
The __________________, championed by ____________________ issued a tax on Glass, lead, Tea and Paper.
Townshend Acts, Lord Townshend
Following the successful boycotts and organization that led to the repeal of the _________________, England's first attempt to tax the day to day activities of colonials (hint: this tax even levied a fee on playing cards), Parliament issued the ____________________ which declared that they would continue to have the right to tax their naughty colonial children whenever they pleased.
Stamp Act, Declaratory Act
The ________________________ was passed following the Boston Tea Party. Two of its key aspects were that it declared martial law in Massachusetts and closed Boston's ports. It was this legislation that led to the _____________________, which met in Philadelphia in 1774 to discuss organizing an enormous boycott of British goods and to lay the groundwork for resistance against escalating British forces.
Intolerable Acts, First Continental Congress
____________________, the cranky and brilliant Massachusetts lawyer, defended the British soldiers accused of "murdering" the innocent New Englanders who were lightheartedly throwing "New England" snowballs at the soldiers.
The _______________________ were entities established to help communities communicate with one another, compare notes about British aggression and strategize on ways that the colonials could resist. ____________________, cousin of the fellow in # 12 was the architect of these entities.
Committees of Correspondence, Samuel Adams
____________________ was an important visionary (and rather harsh) voice in the ___________________________, the religious movement in the mid 1700s that suggested (please briefly define in one or two sentences): ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.
Jonathan Edwards, Great Awakening,
The _____________________ were the type of courts that were overseeing violations of British trade law.
________________________Universities were those that were emerging in the mid to late 1700s to train people in the new religious thinking that was emerging (see #14)
______________ wanted to "prepare an asylum for mankind." He was a close ally of _____________ who believed strongly in "natural rights" for all Americans. There is evidence that both men designed the inspirational document that was the official declaration of independence from Great Britain.
Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson
The two folks above had a different vision of the republic than _________________, a venerable gold-digger - I mean planter who (through his generous wife) bankrolled much of the American Revolution. This fellow argued that "coercive power" should be used to guide average Americans. He also, less than a year before becoming a leader of the revolt, informed a friend that it would be "wicked" to support the American Revolution.
____________, who was fond of saying, "those who own the country should rule it," negotiated the treaty of Paris and was one of the senior diplomats of the Washington administration in the 1790s. Unfortunately for him, _______________the brilliant (and scheming) close advisor to Washington worked to sabotage the treaty that bore the first snooty-snoot's name.
John Jay, Alexander Hamilton
During the 1790s, interestingly, the ________________, the economic leaders of the South, found themselves rooting for the country of _____________; it would be an effective strategy to cut the wealthy and powerful merchant princes down to size.
When _________________ won the election of 1796, the country in # 4 (France) announced that they would start executing Americans found on the ships of that nation's chief rival. The first country had hoped that ________________ would win the election.
John Adams, Thomas Jefferson
The ________________act made it illegal to "oppose any measure or measures" of the United States government. Uh...this was kinda awkward for the vice-president; he enjoyed writing anonymous criticisms of his boss, the most famous of which was the ___________________ which was the "founding" document of the ____________________movement which would allow any state to leave the United States if they felt it was necessary to do so.
Sedition, Virginia Resolution, States Rights
The Alien Act expanded the amount of time that it took to become a citizen from ___ to ____ years. The ______________administration pushed for this new law in part because they were angry that immigrants tended to support the _______________ party.
5, 14, Adams, Jeffersonian
The ________________ was caused due to the French foreign minister's greedy attempt to get a bribe (enter evil French laugh) from the ambassadors sent by President Adams. Vice-President Jefferson thought that Adams was making up the whole thing, perhaps one of the reasons that many Federalists thought of Jefferson and his followers as the "party of __________________."
XYZ Affair, Mad Americans
The ________________ was an attempt by a group of military leaders to stage a coup in 1783. They wanted Washington to become a king and they were angry that the Articles government was led by a bunch of nincompoops. Fortunately, Washington told them that "homey don't play that" and to cut it out.
The _______________school regarding the importance of the American Revolution suggested that the British Empire was inherently broken and that they mismanaged the colonies.
The ___________________ was Washington's public pronouncement that the United States would not honor the _________________ which had permanently joined the United States and France as allies.
Neutrality Proclamation, Treaty of Alliance
The above view annoyed ________________, who had come to the United States to russell up an army of Americans to help beat the British. Washington had him deported...in fact the fellow in this blank actually inspired the action by Washington in #11.
____________________ the important text that helped to lead the ratification of the Constitution argued that a strong central government was necessary to govern such a large territory as the United States.
The Federalist Papers
The ________________ was the undeclared war between France and the United States between 1798-1800.
American prisoner on British ship, inspired by Fort McHenry (BALTIMORE) withstanding British onslaught wrote Star Spangled Banner
Francis Scott Key
army led by Andrew Jackson defended New Orleans against, overconfident British WHO made stupid frontal assault; led to new wave of nationalism and sense of honor in Americans.
Battle of New Orleans
Armistice between America and Britain after conflict in US that stopped fighting and restored conquered territory; created after Tsar Alexander I called 5 American peacemakers (including JQA and Henry Clay) to Ghent because he didn't want Britain to waste all its energy in America and not fight their mutual enemy in France, Napoleon.
Treaty of Ghent
MA, CT, RI, VT, NH (Federalists) met to discuss grievances, demanded:
o Financial assistance from Washington for lost trade in EmbargoEs
o Required 2/3 vote before declaring embargo, new state, or war
o Presidents could only serve 1 term
o Abolition of 3/5 compromise
o Prohibition of 2 successive presidents from the same state (sick of VA dynasty)
Demands/threats of secession were seen as petty at best and seditious at worst, as they were made during wartime
American nationalism exploded as result of the war; led to national literature such as Washington Irvine and James Fenimore Cooper. Textbooks were now written by Americans for Americans; Intellectual North American Review began publication
MD tried to destroy branch of US Bank by taxing its notes; Marshall invoked Hamiltonian doctrine of implied powers and declared bank constitutional, denied MD the right to tax it (increasing federal power and decreasing state powers)
McCulloch v. Maryland
Cohen brothers found guilty of selling illegal lottery tickets, VA won, but Marshall asserted supreme courts right to review all decisions made on state levels regarding federal government powers
Cohens v. Virginia
GA legislature bribed to grant 35 million acres to private speculators; next legislature cancelled the transaction, but Marshall said a contract had been made and state law could not impair contracts
Fletcher v. Peck
state of NY tried to grant monopoly of water commerce between NY and NJ to private party, Marshall reminded NY that only federal government could control interstate commerce; NY lost
Gibbons v. Ogden
South American revolutions forced Spain to empty Florida. Andrew Jackson went into Florida under the pretense of recapturing runaways and punishing Indians w/o bothering Spanish posts; he seized two Spanish posts; hung two Indian chiefs and two British who assisted Indians. Washington was all for punishing Jackson except for JQA, who boldly demanded concessions from Spain --> Florida Purchase
Jackson and the invasion of Florida
warning to European powers of noncolonization and nonintervention; Monroe stated era of colonization in Americas was over and warned Britain to keep monarchical systems out of Western Hemisphere; US would not intervene in European wars'. London proposed joint-declaration of non-interest in Latin America; Adams suspicious of British, thought Britain was worried about American seizure of Spanish territory, cutting off British access to Caribbean's, Adams won over Monroe, Doctrine created
Spain ceded Florida to America in return for abandonment of claims to Texas, which became part of Mexico
Florida Purchase Treaty
No candidate won majority of votes in 1824 election between JQA, Henry Clay, William Crawford and Andrew Jackson; Clay was out because he got least votes, but as speaker of the house he got huge say in who was elected; Crawford had a stroke so he was eliminated, Clay hated Jackson, so he convinced the house to elect JQA; JQA later announced Clay as Secretary of State; people felt Jackson, who won popular vote, should've won
leader of southern Jeffersonians with John Randolph
John C. Calhoun
Adams advocated for and taking advantage of the Cherokee, which would be like advocating for dismantling social security
Adams and the Cherokee
space observatory built by Adams as an infrastructure project; people thought it was a huge waste of money AND THOUGHT IT WOULD STOP SLAVERY
The Chief Justice who still supported federalist ideals even after the federalist party had gone away
Chief Justice Marshall