Goldsmith & sculptor who wrote an autobiography, famous for its arrogance and immodest self-praise.
Mercenary soldier of a political ruler.
Recovery and study of classical authors & writings.
Emphasis on the unique & creative personally (personality?).
Term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
Application and use of reason in understanding and explaining events.
The period from 1400 to 1600 that witnessed a transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christian to classical or secular ones.
Emphasis on the here and now rather than on the spiritual and otherworldly.
(1407-1457) Humanist who used historical criticism to discredit an eighth-century document giving the papacy jurisdiction over Western lands.
Striving for personal excellence.
The sensuous and dynamic style of art of the Counter Reformation.
Brethren of the Common Life
Pious laypeople in sixteenth-century Holland who initiated a religious revival in their model of Christian living.
(1509-1564) French theologian who established a theocracy in Geneva and is best known for his theory of predestination.
(1519-1556) Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands.
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read.
Papal pardon for remission of sins.
Religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution.
(Society of Jesus) Founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
(1505-1572) Calvinist leader in sixteenth-century Scotland.
(1483-1546) German theologian who challenged the church's practice of selling indulgences, a challenge that ultimately led to the destruction of the Roman Catholic world.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England. Executed by Henry VIII for his unwillingness to publicly recognize his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England.
Practice of rewarding relatives with church positions.
Peace of Augsburg
(1555) Document in which Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects.
The holding of several benefices (church offices).
Selling of church offices
A community, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state is subordinate to the church.
Practice of lending money for interest.
(1594-1632) Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles.
Duke of Alva
(1508-1582) Military leader sent by Phillip to pacify the Low Countries.
(1588) Spanish vessels defeated in the English Channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II's invasion of England.
Vasco de Balboa
First European to reach the Pacific Ocean (1513).
Catherine de Medici
(1547-1589) The wife of Henry II (1547-1559) of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons.
First European to sail to the West Indies (1492).
Concordat of Bologna
(1516) Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
Conqueror of the Aztecs (1519-1521).
Defenestration of Prague
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
First European to reach the southern tip of Africa (1487-1488).
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
Edict of Nantes
(1598) The edict of Henry IV that granted Huguenots the rights of public worship and religious toleration in France.
(1558-1603) Protestant ruler of England who helped stabilize religious tensions by subordinating theological issues to political considerations.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Sponser of voyages along West African coasts (1418).
(1589-1610) Formerly Henry of Navarre. Ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism. Surrived St. Bartholomew Day, signed Edict of Nantes, quoted as saying, "Paris is worth a mass."
Circumnavigator of the globe (1519-1522).
Peace of Westphalia
(1648) The treaty ending the Thirty Years' War in Germany. It allowed each prince - whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist - to choose the established creed of his territory.
(1556-1598) Son and successor to Charles V, ruling Spain and the Low Countries.
Conqueror of Peru (1532-1533).
St. Bartholemew's Day
(August 24, 1572). Catholic attack on Calvinists on the marriage day of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV).
Prince William of Orange
(1572-1584) Leader of the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands.
(1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.
Theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally.
Bill of Rights
(1689) English document declaring that sovereignty resided with Parliament.
(1625-1649) Stuart king who brought conflict with Parliament to a head and was subsequently executed.
(1660-1685) Stuart king during the Restoration, following Cromwell's Interregnum.
(1619-1683) Financial minister under the French king Louis XIV who promoted mercantilist policies.
Theory that power should be shared between rulers and their subjects and the state governed according to laws.
(1559-1658) Principal leader and gentry member of the Puritans in Parliament.
Diggers and Levellers
Radical groups in England in the 1650s who called for the abolition of private ownership and extension of the franchise.
Divine right monarchy
Belief that a monarch's power derives from God and represents Him on earth.
Frederick the Great
(1740-1786) The Prussian ruler who expanded his territory by invading the duchy of Silesia and defeating Maria Theresa of Austria.
(1640-1688) The "Great Elector" who built a strong Prussian army and infused military values into Prussian society.
Style in seventeenth-century art and literature resembling the arts in the ancient world and in the Renaissance - e.g. the works of Poussin, Moliere, and Racine.
The last aristocratic revolt against a French monarch.
Reference to the political events of 1688-1689 when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
Legal protection that prohibits the imprisonment of a subject without demonstrated cause.
(1588-1679) Political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on his concept of an anarchic state of nature.
Period of Cromwellian rule (1649-1659), between the Stuart dynastic rules of Charles I and Charles II.
(1603-1625) Stuart monarch who ignored constitutional principles and asserted the divine right of kings.
(1685-1688) Final Stuart ruler. He was forced to abdicate in favor of William and Mary, who agreed to the Bill of Rights, guaranteeing parliamentary supremacy.
(1632-1704) Political theorist who defended the Glorious Revolution with the argument that all people are born with certain natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
(1643-1715) Also known as the "Sun King". The ruler of France who established the supremacy of absolutism in seventeenth-century Europe.
(1740-1780) Archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary. Lost the Hapsburg possession of Silesia to Frederick the Great but was able to keep her other Austrian territories.
Governmental policies by which the state regulates the economy, through taxes, tariffs, subsidies, laws.
New Model Army
Disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
Peace of Utrecht
(1713) Pact concluding the War of the Spanish Succession, forbidding union of France with Spain, and conferring control of Gibraltar on England.
Peter the Great
(1682-1725) Romanov czar who initiated the westernization of Russian society by traveling to the West and incorporating techniques of manufacturing as well as manners and dress.
Petition of Right
(1628) Parliamentary document that restricted the king's power. Most notably, it called for recognition of the writ of habeas corpus and held that only Parliament could impose new taxes.
Reference to the English civil war (1642-1646), waged to determine whether sovereignty would reside in the monarch or in the Parliament.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Return of the Stuart monarchy (1660) after the period of republican government under Cromwell - in fact, a military dictatorship.
(1673) Law prohibiting Catholics and dissenters to hold political office.
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
War of the Spanish Succession
(1701-1713) Last of Louis XIV's wars involving the issue of succession to the Spanish throne.
William of Orange
(1672-1702) Dutch prince and foe of Louis XIV who became king of England in 1689.
The geocentric view of the universe that prevailed from the fourth century B.C. to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and accorded with church teachings and Scriptures.
(1561-1626) Inductive thinker who stressed experimentation in arriving at the truth.
(1473-1543) Polish astronomer who posited a heliocentric universe in place of a geocentric universe.
The belief that God has created the universe and set it in motion to operate like clockwork. God is literally in the wings watching the show go on as humans forge their own destiny.
(1596-1650) Deductive thinker whose famous saying "cogito, ergo sum" ("I think, therefore I am") challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures.
The intellectual revolution of the eighteenth century in which the philosophes stressed reason, natural law, and progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices.
(1564-1642) Italian scientist who formulated terrestrial laws and the modern law of Inertia. He also provided evidence for the Copernican hypothesis.
Economic concept of the Scottish philosophe Adam Smith (1723-1790). In opposition to mercantilism, Smith urged governments to keep hands off the operation of the economy. He believed the role of government was analogous to the night watchman, guarding and protecting, but not intervening in the operation of the economy, which must be left to run in accord with the natural laws of supply and demand.
(1642-1727) English scientist who formulated the law of gravitation that posited a universe operating in accord with natural law.
Social critics of the eighteenth century who subjected social institutions and practices to the test of reason.
Royal Society of London and French Academy of Sciences
Organized bodies for scientific study.
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
Crime and Punishment
Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind
An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
Two Treatises on Goverment; Essay on Human Understanding
Spirit of the Laws
The Social Contract; Emile
Wealth of Nations
Philosophical Letters; Candide
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Ancien Regime (Old Regime)
France prior to the French Revolution.
Fees that peasants were obligated to pay landlords for the use of the village mill, bakeshop and winepress.
Political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Parisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles.
Cahier de doleances
List of grievances that each Estate drew up in preparation for the summoning of the Estates-General in 1789.
The codification and condensation of laws assuring legal equality and uniformity in France.
Committee of Public Safety
Leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period from 1792-1795.
Napoleon's arrangement with Pope Plus VII to heal religious division in France with a united Catholic church under bishops appointed by the government.
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding importation of British goods into Europe.
Roadwork. An obligation of peasants to landowners.
Overthrow of those in power.
Declaration of Pillnitz
(1791) Austria and Prussia agreed to intervene in France to end the revolution with the unanimous agreement of the great powers.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
(August 27, 1789) Document that embodied the liberal revolutionary ideals and general principles of the philosophes' writings.
(1795-1799) The five-man executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's execution and prior to Napoleon's coming to power.
French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.
Panic and insecurity that struck French peasants in the summer of 1789 and led to their widespread destruction of manor houses and archives.
Dominant group in the National Convention in 1793 who replaced the Girondist. It was headed by Robespierre.
Law of the maximum
The fixing of prices on bread and other essentials under Robespierre's rule.
Levee en masse
The creation under the Jacobins, of a citizen army with support from young and old, heralding the emergence of modern warfare.
(1769-1821) Consul and later emperor of France (1799-1815), who established several of the reforms (Code Napoleon) of the French Revolution during his dictatorial rule.
Night of August 4, 1789
Date of the declaration by liberal nobleman of the National Assembly at a secret meeting to abolish the feudal regime in France.
Law court staffed by nobles that could register or refuse to register a king's edict.
(1808-1813) Napoleon's long-drawn-out war with Spain.
(1758-1794) Jacobin leader during the Reign of Terror (1793-1794).
Reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men.
Direct tax from which most French nobles were exempt.
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).
Treaty of Tilsit
(1807) Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces.
(1748-1832) British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.
(1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
Politically active students around 1815 in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles.
Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815.
(1819) Repressive laws in the German states limiting freedom of speech and dissemination of liberal ideas in the universities.
Russian revolutionaries calling for constitutional reform in the early nineteenth century.
Frederick William IV
(1840-1861) King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848.
(1787-1874) Chief minister under Louis Philippe. Guizot's repression led to the revolution of 1848.
An alliance envisioned by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule in accord with Christian principles.
Louie Napoleon Bonaparte
(1808-1873) Nephew of Napoleon I. He came to power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848.
Prince Clemens von Metternich
(1773-1859) Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna.
John Stuart Mill
(1806-1873) British philosopher who published On Liberty (1859), advocating individual rights against government intrusion, and The Subjection of Women (1869), on the cause of women's rights.
Poor Law of 1834
Legislation that restricted the number of poverty-stricken-eligible for aid.
Organization, made up of Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia, to preserve the peace settlement of 1815. France joined in 1818.
Depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent representatives to Parliament.
Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia and including almost all German-speaking states except Austria by 1844.
Repeal of Test Act
(1828) Allowed Protestants who were not members of the Church of England to hold public office.
Catholic Emancipation Bill
(1829) Enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time.
Reform Bill of 1832
Gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds in rent a year. Eliminated the rotten boroughs.
Abolished in the British Empire in 1833.
Limited children's and adolescents workweek in textile factories.
Repealed in 1846. They had imposed a tariff on imported grain and were a symbolic protection of aristocratic landholdings.
(1814-1876) Radical Russian, advocated revolutionary violence. Believed that revolutionary movements should be lead by secret societies who would seize power, destroy the state and create a new social order.
(1813-1898) Englishman who developed the Bessemer converter, the first efficient method for the mass production of steel.
(1811-1882) Wrote the Organization of Work (1840) which proposed the use of competition to eliminate competition. It was the first step toward a future socialist society. Advocated the principle of "from each according to his abilties, to each according to his needs".
Middle class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosophes, the French Revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its political goals were self government (concept of the general will); a written constitution; natural rights (speech, religion, press, property, mobility); limited suffrage; its economic goals were laissez-faire (free trade -- no government interference in the workings of the economy).
The idea, according to Karl Marx, that change and development in history results from the conflict between social classes. Economic forces impel human beings to behave in socially determined ways.
The manufacture of goods in the household setting, a production system that gave way to the factory system.
(1820-1895) Collaborator with Karl Marx. Engels was a textile factory owner and supplied Marx with the hard data for his economic writings, most notably Das Kapttal (1867).
Battlefield photographer of the Crimean War.
J. G. Fichte
(1762-1814) German writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples.
(1772-1837) Leading utopian socialist who envisaged small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing private property and monogamous marriage as well.
The idea, according to G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831), a German philosopher, that social change results from the conflict of opposite ideas. The thesis is confronted by the antithesis, resulting in a synthesis, which then becomes a new thesis. The process is evolutionary. Marx turned Hegel "upside down" and made class conflict, not ideas, the force driving history forward.
J. G. Herder
(1774-1803) Forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people shared a national character, or Volksgeist.
(1776-1834) English parson whose Essay on Population (1798) argued that population would always increase faster than food supply.
(1818-1883) German philosopher and founder of Marxisim, the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development.
(1771-1858) Utopian socialists who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased workers wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist communities. The most notable was New Harmony (1826) which failed.
(1772-1823) English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages" according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of population growth.
British journalist who reported the events of the Crimean War first hand for the people at home.
(1820-1903) English philosopher who argued that in the difficult economic struggle for existence, only the "fittest" would survive.
(1803-1844) Socialist and feminist who called for working woman's social and political rights.
Otto von Bismarck
(1815-1898) Prussian chancellor who engineered a series of wars to unify Germany under his authoritarian rule.
The upper house, or Federal Council, of the German Diet (legislature).
(1810-1861) Italian statesman from Sardinia who used diplomacy to help achieve unification of Italy.
(1803-1876) Magyar, who forced Franz Joseph to agree to the Compromise of 1867 (Ausgleich) which created the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
The carefully edited dispatch by Bismarck to the French ambassador Benedetti that appeared to be insulting and thus requiring retaliation by France for the seeming affront to French honor.
(1807-1882) Soldier of fortune who amassed his "Red Shirt" army to bring Naples and Sicily into a unified Italy.
House of Savoy
Italian dynasty ruling the independent state of Piedmont - Sardinia. Its head was King Victor Emmanuel II.
(1867) The bill passed by the German Reichstag that legitimated Bismarck's unconstitutional collection of taxes to modernize the army in 1863.
Bismarck's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with Vatican. Eventually, after little success, Bismarck halted these policies.
(1825-1864) Leader of the revisionist socialists, who hoped to achieve socialism through the ballot rather than the bullet. They agreed to work within the framework of the existing government.
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872)
Idealistic patriot devoted to the principle of united and republican Italy in a world of free states.
(1852-1870) Former Louis Napoleon, who became president of the Second Republic of France in 1848 and engineered a coup d'etat, ultimately making himself head of the Second Empire.
Shared belief among peoples of a common heritage, culture, and customs, and speaking a similar language (there may be dialect differences).
(1775-1847) Irish advocate for the Penal Laws against Catholics. Tried to repeal the Act of Union of 1800, which linked Britain and Ireland legislatively. He was elected to Parliament for the passage of the 1829 Catholic Emancipation Act which declared Catholics were eligible for public office.
Parnell, Charles Stewart
(1846-1891) Elected to Parliament in 1875. He came to prominence by obstructing other legislation to gain a hearing for home rule for Ireland. In 1885 Parnell's party won 86 seats, exactly the number of votes separating the Liberals (335) from the Conservatives (249). This forced Gladstone to announce his support for the HOME RULE BILL.
"Politics of reality" i.e., the use of practical means to achieve ends. Bismarck was a practitioner.
Volunteers in Garibaldi's army.
The lower house of the German Diet, or legislature.
Italian drive and desire for unity.
Siege of Paris
The four-month Prussian assault on the French capital after Napoleon III's surrender in 1870.
Two duchies located south of Denmark. In 1863 Schleswig was annexed by Denmark prompting Bismarck's Danish War.
Treaty of Frankfurt
The end of the Franco-Prussian War, which ceded the territories of Alsace and most of Lorraine to Germany.
An association under the leadership of Mazzini that urged the unification of the country.
(1855-1881) Reforming czar who emancipated the serfs and introduced some measure of representative local government.
(1881-1894) Politically reactionary czar who promoted economic modernization of Russia.
Catherine the Great
(1762-1796) An "enlightened despot" of Russia whose policies of reform were aborted under pressure of rebellion by serfs.
Church Statute of 1721
A Holy Synod that replaced the office of patriarch. All of its members (lay and religious) had to swear allegiance to the czar.
(1853-1856) Conflict ostensibly waged to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, in actuality to gain a foothold in the Black Sea. Turks, Britain, and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris (1856) forfeited Russia's right to maintain a war fleet in the Black Sea. Russia also lost the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia.
The 1825 plot by liberals (upper-class intelligentsia) to set up a constitutional monarchy or a republic. The plot failed, but the ideals remained.
Russian national legislature.
(1861) The imperial law that abolished serfdom in Russia and, on paper, freed the peasants. In actuality they were collectively responsible for redemption payments to the government for a number of years.
Leader of the factory workers who assembled before the czar's palace to petition him on January 1905 (Bloody Sunday).
Ivan the Great
(1462-1505) The Slavic Grand Duke of Moscow, he ended nearly 200 years of Mongol domination of his dukedom. From then on he worked at extending his territories, subduing the nobles, and attaining absolute power.
Ivan the terrible
(1533-1584) Earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.
An independent and propertied Russian farmer.
Village commune where the emancipated serfs lived and worked collectively in order to meet redemption payments to the government.
(1894-1917) The last czar of the Romanov dynasty, whose government collapsed under the pressure of World War I.
The first woman to be executed for a political crime in Russia. She was a member of a militant movement that assassinated Czar Alexander II in 1881.
(1726-1775) Head of the bloody peasant revolt in 1773 that convinced Catherine the Great to throw her support to the nobles and cease internal reforms.
(1613-16##) In 1613 an assembly of nobles chose Michael as the new czar. For the next 300 years the Romanov family ruled in Russia.
(1862-1911) Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved education for enterprising peasants.
(1849-1915) Finance minister under whom Russia industrialized and began a program of economic modernization, founder of the Transiberian Railroad.
A type of local government with powers to tax and make laws; essentially, a training ground for democracy, dominated by the property-owning class when established in 1864.
(1850-1932) Revisionist German Social Democrat who favored socialist revolution by the ballot rather than the bullet --i.e., by cooperating with the bourgeois members of Parliament and securing electoral victories for his party (the SDP).
"Cat and Mouse Act"
(1913) Law that released suffragettes on hunger strikes from jail and then rearrested and jailed them again.
Formerly the Tory Party, headed by Disraeli in the nineteenth century.
(1809-1882) British scientist whose Origin of Species (1859) proposed the theory of evolution based on his biological research.
(1804-1881) Leader of the British Tory Party who engineered the Reform Bill of 1867, which extended the franchise to the working class. Added the Suez Canal to English overseas holdings.
(1859-1935) French Jewish army captain unfairly convicted of espionage in a case that lasted from 1894 to 1906.
Group of English socialists, including George Bernard Shaw, who advocated electoral victories rather than violent revolution to bring about social change.
(1856-1939) Viennese pscyhoanalyst whose theory of human personality based on sexual drives schocked Victorian sensibilities.
(1809-1898) English Prime Minister (Liberal) known as the "Grand Old Man". Instituted liberal reforms which were designed to remove long standing abuses without destorying existing institutions. He believed in Home Rule for Ireland. In 1870 he passed the Education Act of 1870 and the Order in Council which replaced patronage as a means of entering civil service with competitive examinations. In 1871 he removed the Anglician religion qualification for faculty positions at Oxford and Cambridge universities and introduced The Ballot Act of 1872 which provided for a secret ballot.
(1859-1914) French revisionist socialist who was assassinated for his pacifist ideals at the start of World War I.
Formerly the Whig Party, headed by Gladstone in the nineteenth century.
(1844-1900) German philosopher and forerunner of the modern existentialist movement. He stressed the role of the Ubermensch or Superman, who would rise about the common herd of mediocrity.
(1808-1877) British feminist whose legal persistence resulted in the Married Womens Property Act (1883), which gave married women the same property rights as unmarried women.
(1858-1928) British suffragette and founder of the Woman's Social and Political Union.
Parliament Act of 1911
Legislation that deprived the House of Lords of veto power in all money matters. (Realistically curtails the power of the House of Lords).
The revolutionary municipal council, led by radicals, that engaged in a civil war (March-May 1871) with the National Assembly of the newly established Third Republic, set up after the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War.
(1891) Papal encyclical of Leo XIII (1878-1903) that upheld the right of private property but criticized the inequities of capitalism. It recommended that Catholics form political parties and trade unions to redress the poverty and insecurity fostered under capitalism.
Marxists who believed that workers empowered to vote could obtain their ends through democratic means without revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat, known as revisionism.
The Social Democratic Party in Germany, based on Marx's Ideology.
Syllabus of Errors
(1864) Doctrine of Pope Pius IX (1846-1878) that denounced belief in reason and science and attacked "progress, liberalism, and modern civilization".
The French trade-unionist belief that workers would become the governmental power through a general strike that would paralyze society.
French trade unions.
Vatican Council of 1870
Gathering of Catholic church leaders that proclaimed the doctrine of papal infallibility.
Provision of the Versailles Treaty that blamed Germany for World War I.
Serbian secret society alleged to be responsible for assassinating Archduke Francis Ferdinand. (Princeps)
Reference to the full support provided by William II to Austria-Hungary in its conflict with Serbia. Also refers to the promise of support given by Russia to Serbia to develop a Slavic state.
A battleship with increased speed and power over conventional warships, developed by both Germany and Great Britain to increase their naval arsenals. Carried 10 300mm guns mounted in 5 turrets.
An 1867 compromise between the Germans of Austria-Bohemia and the Magyars of Germany to resolve the nationalities problem by creating the empire of Austra and the kingdom of Hungary, with a common ministry for finance, foreign affairs, and war.
Before both world wars, the policy of other European countries that, Germany claimed, prevented German expansion, denying it the right to aqcuire "living room" (Lebensraum).
The 1904 "gentleman's agreement" between France and Britain establishing a close understanding.
Wilson's peace plans calling for freedom of the seas, arms reduction, and the right of self-determination for ethnic groups.
An economic theory or policy of the absence of restrictions or tariffs on goods imported into a country. There is no "protection" in the form of tariffs against foreign competition.
The acquisition and administration of colonial areas, usually in the interests of the administering country. (The Second Age of Exploration).
Financial demands placed on loser nations.
League of Nations
A proposal included in Wilson's Fourteen Points to establish an international organization to settle disputes and avoid future wars.
British merchant liner carrying ammunition and passengers that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915. The loss of 139 American lives on board was a factor bringing the United States into World War I.
Moroccan Crises 1. Algecira
The site of the 1906 conference in Spain at which German involvement in Morocco was rebuffed by Britain and France acting in unison.
Moroccan Crises 2. Agatir
The site of the landing of the German gunboat in Morocco in 1911. William II tried to force the French to make concessions to Germany in Africa. Like the first crisis, this one drew Britain and France closer together.
The movement to unite Slavs in the Balkans.
The French desire for revenge against Germany for the loss of the Alsace and Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War (1870).
The Balkan town in the Austro-Hungarian province of Bosnia where Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the throne.
Top-secret German strategy to fight a two-front war against Russia and France. The idea was to invade Belgium for a quick victory against France, and then direct German forces against a more slowly mobilizing Russia.
The ability of an ethnic-group to decide how it wishes to be governed, as an independent nation or as part of another country.
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Three Emperors' League
The 1873 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Russia.
The 1882 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Italy.
After 1907, the alliance between England, France, and Russia.
"World politics". The policy of making Germany a major global power through an expanding navy and the acquisition of colonies, the dream of William II.
(1856-1924) President of the United States and key figure in the peace conferences following World War I; he intended to make the world "safe for democracy".
A secret German message to Mexico supporting the Mexican governement in regaining Arizona and Texas if the Mexicans declared war on the United States, a factor propelling the United States into World War I in April 1917.
Army Order Number 1
An order issued to the Russian military when the provisional government was formed. It deprived officers of their authority and placed power in electoral committees of common soldiers. This led to the collapse of army discipline.
Left-wing, revolutionary Marxists headed by Lenin. (Majority men).
The secret police under Lenin and his Communist Party.
Also known as the Cadets, the party of the liberal bourgeoisie in Russia.
Council of People's Commissars
The new government set up by Lenin following the Red Guard seizure of government buildings on November 6, 1917.
(1870-1924) The Bolshevik leader who made the Marxist revolution in November 1917 and modified orthodox Marxism in doing so.
Right-wing or moderate Marxists willing to cooperate with the bourgeoisie. (Minority men).
New Economic Policy
(NEP) Plan introduced by Lenin after the Russian civil war. Essentially it was a tactical retreat from war communism, allowing some private ownership among the peasants to stimulat agrarian production.
"Peace, land, and bread"
The promise Lenin made to this supporters on his arrival in April 1917 in Russia after his exile abroad. (In Germany).
The St. Petersburg, or Petrograd, council of workers, soldiers, and intellectuals who shared power with the provisional government.
The temporary government established after the abdication of Nicholas II (1881-1970), from March until Lenin's takeover in November 1917.
An uneducated Siberian preached (nicknamed Rasputin, the Degenerate) who claimed to have mysterious healing powers. He could stop the bleeding of Czarina Alexandra's son--possibly through hypnosis--and was thus able to gain influence in the czar's court, much to the dismay of top ministers and aristocrats, who finally arranged for his murder. The czarina's relationship with Rasputin did much to discredit Czar Nicholas's rule.
The Bolshevik armed forces.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
(March 1918) Pact by which Lenin pulled Russia out of the war with Germany and gave up one third of the Russian population in the western territories.
(1879-1940) Lenins ally who organized and led the Bolshevik military takeover of the provisional government headed by Kerensky, in November 1917.
"Two Tactics for Social Democracy"
The 1905 essay in which Lenin argued that the agrarian and industrial revolutions could be telescoped. It was unnecessary for Russia to become an industrialized nation before the Marxist revolution.
The application of total war by the Bolsheviks to the civil war (1918-1920) at home--i.e., requisitioning grain, nationalizing banks and industries, and introducing rationing.
"What Is to Be Done?"
Essay written by Lenin in 1902 that outlined his plan for an elite revolutionary cadre to engineer the communist revolution in agrarian Russia.
(1857-1933) German Marxist who focused on women's issues in the Communist Party.
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
The making of concessions to an adversary in the hope of avoiding conflict. The term is most often used in reference to the meeting between Hitler and the British prime minister Chamberlain in Munich, where agreement was made, in September 1938, to cede the Sudetenland (the German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia) to Germany.
Beer Hall Putsch
Hitler's attempt, in 1923, to overthrow the Weimar Republic when he fired his pistol in the ceiling of a Munich beer hall.
The private army of Mussolini.
Hitler's private army of supporters, also known as the SA (Sturm Abteilung).
(Krystallnacht) The November 1938 destruction, by Hitler's Brown Shirts and mobs, of Jewish shops, homes, and synagogues.
(1924) The provision of U.S. Loans to Germany to help meet reparation payments, which were also reduced.
Article 48 of the Weimar constitution, which enabled Hitler to issue decrees carrying the force of the law.
The political and economic methods of Mussolini in Italy. The name comes from the fasces or bundle of rods tied around an axe, the symbol of authority in ancient Rome.
Paul von Hindenburg
(1847-1934) President of Weimar Germany, who appointed Hitler chancellor in 1933; formerly a general in World War I.
(1889-1945) The Nazi leader who came to power legally in Germany in 1933. He set up a totalitarian dictatorship and led Germany into World War II.
(1928) Document, signed by fifteen countries, that "condemned and renounced war as an instrument of national policy".
The British party that replaced the Liberals in the early twentieth century and championed greater social equality for the working classes through the efforts of labor unions.
(1929) Pact that provided recognition by Mussolini of the Vatican and a large sum of money to the church as well.
(1925) Pact that secured the frontier between Germany and France and Germany and Belgium. It also provided for mutual assistance by France and Italy if Germany invaded its border countries.
"My Struggle" Work written by Hitler while in prison in 1923. The book outlines his policies for German expansion, war, and elimination of non Aryans.
(1883-1945) The founder and leader of the Italian Fascist Party.
(NAZIS) The political party of Adolf Hitler.
(1935) Measures that excluded Jews from white-collar professions and from marriage and habitation with non-Jews.
Forcible and illegitimate attempt to seize power.
A plebiscite: the referring of a matter to the people for a decision.
Left-wing Marxists in Germany who hoped to bring about a proletarian revolution in 1919.
German-speaking area of Czechoslovakia, ceded to Germany in the Hitler-Chamberlain Munich meeting (September 1938).
Name given to Germany during the Nazi regime, between 1933 and 1945. The First Reich (or empire) was from 963 to 1806 (the Holy Roman Empire). The second was from 1871 to 1917 (the reigns of William I and William II).
An attempt by government to control a society totally through a dictatorship that employs the modern methods of communication--press, radio, TV--to glorify the state over the individual. Its varieties are Fascism, Nazism, and communism.
Independent sovereign state of the pope and the Catholic church, established in Rome in 1929.
Victor Emmanuel III
(1900-1946) King of Italy who asked Mussolini to form a cabinet in 1922, thus allowing Mussolini to take power legally.
(1921) Conference of major powers to reduce naval armaments among Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, and the United States.
A reference to the republic of Germany that lasted from 1919 to 1933.
(1929) Schedule that set limits to Germany's reparation payments and reduced the agreed-on time for occupation of the Ruhr.
(1876-1967) The first chancellor of West Germany. He was able to establish a stable democratic government.
Algerian Liberation Movement
An eight-year struggle by Algeria to secure independence from French colonial control. The goal was finally achieved in 1962.
The join declaration, in August 1941, by Roosevelt and Churchill, stating common principles for the free world: self-determination, free choice of government, equal opportunities for all nations for trade, permanent system of general security and disarmament.
Simone de Beauvoir
(1908-1986) Existentialist and feminist who has written on the psychology and social position of women.
Concrete barrier constructed by the Soviets in August 1961 between West Berlin and East Berlin to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West. (In 1990, the wall was torn down).
(1913--) Chancellor of West Germany in the late 1960s. He sought to improve relations with the states of Eastern Europe.
(1907-1982) Soviet leader who helped oust and then replace Khrushchev.
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need.
(1913-1960) French existentialist who stated that in spite of the general absurdity of human life, individuals could make rational sense out of their own existence through meaningful personal decision making.
An intense conflict between the superpowers using all means short of military might to achieve their respective ends.
Another name for the European Economic Community, which created a free-trade area among the Western European countries.
Council for Mutual Economic Aid (Comecon)
An economic alliance, founded in 1949, to coordinate the economic affairs of the Soviet Union and its satellite countries.
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Reference to the period of relaxation or thaw in relations between the superpowers during Khrushchev's rule in the Soviet Union.
European Coal and Steel Community
Organized by Jean Monnet (1888-1979) it called for an integration of the coal and steel industries of France and West Germany. It finally added Italy and Benelux states.
European Economic Community
(Common Market) Organization, begun on January 1, 1958, including France, German Federal Republic, Italy, and the Benelux nations (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg). By 1966 the Common Market would eliminate all customs barriers between the countries, would set up a common tariff policy on imports, and would gradually remove all restrictions on the movement of workers and capital.
European Free Trade Association
An association of Western European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs. Members were Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland, and Great Britain. Sometimes referred to as the Outer Heaven --i.e., outside the Common Market. Formed in 1959.
A label for widely different revolts against traditional philosophy, stressing choice, freedom, decision, and anguish, and emerging strongly during and after the World War II years.
Government established in France in October 1958. The First Republic lasted from 1793 to 1804. The Second from 1848 to 1852. The Third from 1875 to 1945. And the Fourth from 1946 to 1958.
Supporters of General de Gaulle who refused to acknowledge the French armistice in 1940. In 1944, de Gaulle's Committee of National Liberation was proclaimed and recognized as the French provisional government.
Alcide de Gasperi
(1881-1954) The leader of the Christian Democrats in Italy, he was committed to democracy and moderate social reform.
Charles de Gaulle
(1890-1970) First president of the French Fifth Republic and former head of the Free French movement in World War II.
Gorbachev used the term to explain his new policy of "openness" in allowing Russians more freedom to dissent.
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin for political dissidents.
(1956) Attempt by students and workers to liberalize the Communist regime and break off military alliance with the Soviet Union.
(1883-1969) German existentialist seeing all people as equally co-responsible for the terrors and injustices of the world.
(1894-1971) Soviet leader who denounced Stalin's rule and brought a temporary thaw in the superpowers' relations.
Program that advanced more than $11 Billion for European recovery to sixteen Western nations from 1947 to 1953. The final cost to the United States was $20 Billion.
Former premier of Italy and leader of the Christian Democratic Party who was assassinated by a terrorist group in 1978.
(1896-1958) Hungarian Communist Party Leader who attempted to end association with the USSR which led to the 1956 Hungarian revolt.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Military alliance founded in 1949, between the United States and Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Portugal, and Italy. Later, Greece, Turkey, and West Germany joined.
(1890-1960) Russian author of Dr. Zhivago, a novel condemning the brutality of the Stalin era.
The thaw in cold war tensions between the superpowers.
Gorbachev's policy of "restructuring" which included reducing the direct involvement of the Communist Party leadership in the day to day governing of the nation. It was a decentralization of economic planning and controls.
The July-August 1945 meeting of Truman, Stalin, and Clemente Atlee of Great Britain, at which disagreements arose over the permanent borders of Germany and free elections in East European countries. Stalin refused to hold free elections, in fear of anti-Soviet governments.
The liberal reforms introduced by Alexander Dubcek, the Czechoslovak Communist Party secretary. On August 20, 1968, twenty thousand troops from the Soviet Union and its satellite countries occupied Prague to undo the reforms.
Terrorist group committed to radical political and social change that claimed responsibility for the assassination of former Italian premier Aldo Moro in 1978.
1972 Treaty between American and Soviet Union which limited the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) at their existing levels for five years.
Additional arms limitations signings in 1979 which places limits on long-range missiles, bombers, and nuclear warheads.
(1905-1980) French existentialist most famous for his statement that "existence precedes essence"--i.e., first we exist and then our decisions and choices shape our character or essence.
An international organization set up in 1952 to control and integrate all European coal and production. Also known as the European Coal and Steel Community.
Polish political party (anti-communism) led by Lech Walesa. Wanted free elections for Poles.
(1918--) Russian author of One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, a novel detailing life in a Stalinist concentration camp.
(b. 1925--) Conservative British Prime Minister and first woman to head a major European government.
Marshal Tito (Josip Broz)
(1892-1980) Communist chief of Yugoslavia who proclaimed independence of his country from Soviet influence.
Treaty of Rome
Pact, created in 1957, that set up the European Economic Community (also known as the Common Market).
Policy providing military aid to Greece and Turkey in an effort to contain Communism (1947-1948).
Pope John XXIII called the conference which met in four sessions between 1962-65. The purpose was to bring the church up to date (aggiornamento).
A military alliance, formed in 1955, of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellite nations.
Founded by Theodore Herzl (1860-1904) the Zionists sought the creation of a national homeland for the Jews in Palestine. It was supported by the British Balfour Declaration during WWI but did not become a reality until 1948.