(r. 1888-1918) energetic German emperor but born with a faulty left arm. Built up Germany's navy
German High Seas Fleet
A fleet technologically superior to Britain's and caused them to change their policy of isolation
Britain, France, Russia
Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy
assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
June 28th, 1914. Brought WWI to a head. Austrian leader killed by a Serbian
Beginning of World War I
There was initially great optimism and pride. Very fast attacks
Battle of Verdun
Feb.-Dec. 1916 German offenses against the French fortifications. Lead by German Chief of the General Staff Falkenhayn.
Battle of the Sommes
Jul.-Nov. 1916 British offensive and casualties the first day reached 20,000 (57,000 total)
days spent in massive trenches that stretched from English Channel to Switzerland
World War I armistice
November 11, 1918. The original armistice day
Woodrow Wilson. Some of the points included disarmament, no secret agreements, free-trade, freeing of colonial claims and the creation of the League of Nations
Paris Peace Conference
Decisions made by the "big four" leaders: America, France, England, and Italy
Treaty of Versailles
January 1919. Germany could only have an army of 100,000 men, had to demilitarize the Rhineland and give back Alsace-Lorraine. They also owed tons of money in war reparations
Tsar Nicholas II
(r. 1894-1917) married a granddaughter of British Queen Victoria. In 1915 he takes control of the Russian army but by Winter 1916-1917 they are defeated and demoralized.
(1871-1916) A semi-literate mystic who appeared to have mysterious healing powers and gained favor with the empress because he seemed to control the bleeding of the heir, Alexis, who was a hemophiliac. In 1916, a conspiracy by the Russian nobles had him assassinated
October (November) Revolution
November 1917, Bolshevik supporters took control of the government. and formed a new government based loosely on Marxist principles
Bolshevik or Communist Party
Marxist communist revolutionary party
(1870-1924) Leader of the Bolsheviks
Inion of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1871-1953) Consolidated his power and eliminated all rivals. Industry was ruthlessly pursued and agriculture was largely centralized
"war guilt clause"
to make Germany feel guilty about its acts during WWI and to hold them over its head
New government of Germany established in 1919. Had a president, Chancellor and parliament. Universal male suffrage
The lower house of the parliament elected every four years with proportional representation
Between 1922-1923 the RM was completely worthless. By November 23rd it was 4.2 Trillion RM to the US Dollar
racialist thought. Problems could be explained and solved through reference to racial identity. Led to Jews as the German enemy
"stab in the back"
Belief that victory was stolen from Germany by Jews, politicians and Marxists
A worker's party with a racialist ideology. Hitler joined the party on September 12, 1919 and found he could excel
(1889-1945) Joined NSDAP and became party leader in 1921.1923 gains support of other similar political groups and goes to the Munich Bürgerbraükeller (Nov. 8-9.) Announces to current dictator that a revolution is taken place. They're stopped, and Hitler ends up in prison in 1924 for treason. Upon his release, he reforms the party and vows to make it a huge political force. Through a coalition government and muscular tactics, he is eventually made chancellor and then named president when von Hindenburg steps down
The SA or "Storm Troopers." Activist organization of the party
"Guard Unit." Elite guard, formally a guard unit for Hitler.
Beer Hall Putsch
November 8th-9th 1923. In Munich Bürgerbraükeller, the Nazis surrounding the beer hall and announced "a revolution has begun." Kahr agreed to support Hitler but during their march for power, they were arrested.
President Paul von Hindenburg
Made Hitler Chancellor on January 30th, 1933. Died on August, 2nd 1934.
September 29-30th 1938. European powers agreed to cede the Sudetenland. Internationally supervised plebiscite would decide fate of Czech-German border
Jews lost citizenship and right to marry Germans.
November 9th, 1938. "Night of Broken Glass" Attacks by Nazi units onto Jewish business. Arrested, tortured and murdered Jews
German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
August 23rd, 1939. Agreed to divide Poland into two spheres of influence
World War II
(1939-1945) Germany invaded Poland on September 1st, 1939. Use of Blitzkrieg. Major Western offensives took place in 1940 on Netherlands, Belgium and France.
German Invasion of the Soviet Union
Battle of Stalingrad November 1942-February 1943 and German was defeated.
Sho'ah or Holocaust
Wannsee Conference in 1942 determined that this was Germany's "final solution" to the "Jewish problem." Extermination camps were operating in spring of 1942
Originally a concentration camp but it turns into an extermination camp
December 7th, 1941. The Japanese attack the American fleet, causing America to declare war on Japan, Germany declares war on the US, and America is in the war.
June 6th, 1944 on the beaches of Normandy in France. Within three months, two million men landed.
August 6th, 1945. Japanese seem unwilling to end war so President Truman makes the decision to try the atomic bomb on Japan.