A&P I Exam 3 Chapter 23

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Which of the following is not part of the upper respiratory system?

a.Nose
b.Oral cavity
c.Pharynx
d.Trachea
e.Nasal meatuses

a.Nose

The conducting zone does NOT act to

a.Clean air of debris
b.Conduct air into the lungs
c.Add water to air
d.Warm air
e.All of the above

e.All of the above

Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water?

a.Pharynx
b.Larynx
c.Paranasal sinuses
d.Trachea
e.Esophagus

a.Pharynx

This structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea.

a.Arytenoid cartilage
b.Epiglottis
c.Nasopharynx
d.Thyroid cartilage
e.Paranasal sinus

b.Epiglottis

This is located anterior to the esophagus and carries air to the bronchi.

a.Trachea
b.Larynx
c.Nasopharynx
d.Pharynx
e.None of the above

a.Trachea

This is the primary gas exchange site.

a.Trachea
b.Bronchiole
c.Nasal sinuses
d.Alveolus
e.Bronchus

d.Alveolus

Which of the below tissues provides the functions of the inner layer of the conducting organs?

a.stratified squamous epithelium with keratin
b.ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
c.cilated cuboidal epithelium with goblet cells
d.transitional epithelium with cilia
e.columnar connective tissue with goblet cells

b.ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

Which of the below tissues forms the exchange surfaces of the alveolus?

a.stratified squamous epithelium
b.ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
c.simple squamous epithelium
d.hyaline cartilage
e.columnar connective tissue with goblet cells

c.simple squamous epithelium

These are cells of the alveoli that produce surfactant.

a.Type I alveolar cells
b.Type II alveolar cells
c.Type III alveolar cells
d.Surface cells
e.Macrophages

b.Type II alveolar cells

This is direction of diffusion of gases at capillaries near systemic cells.

a.Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide into blood
b.Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide into blood
c.Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood
d.Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood

b.Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide into blood

This is direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs.

a.Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide into blood
b.Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide into blood
c.Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood
d.Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood

c.Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood

Exhalation begins when

a.A. Inspiratory muscles relax
b.B. Diaphragm contracts
c.C. Blood circulation is the lowest
d.Both a and b
e.All of the above

a.A. Inspiratory muscles relax

This means the lungs and the chest wall expand easily.

a.High surface tension
b.Low surface tension
c.High compliance
d.Low compliance
e.None of the above

c.High compliance

The conducting airways with the air that does not undergo respiratory exchange are known as the

a.Inspiratory volume
b.Expiratory reserve volume
c.Minimal volume
d.Residual volume
e.Respiratory dead space

e.Respiratory dead space

Which is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport?

a.Bound to hemoglobin
b.Bound to oxygen
c.Dissolved in plasma as a gas
d.Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions
e.Diffusion

d.Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions

When blood pH drops then the amount of oxyhemoglobin _______ and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells ________________.

a. increases, increases
b. Increases, decreases
c. Decreases, increases
d. Decreases, decreases
e. Does not change, does not change

c. Decreases, increases

Which is a factor that does NOT affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?

a.pH of blood
b.Partial pressure of the oxygen
c.Amount of oxygen available
d.Temperature
e.Respiratory rate

e.Respiratory rate

Describe the neural, chemical, and physical changes that increase the rate and depth of ventilation during exercise.

Anticipation of exercise generates neural input to the limbic system. Sensory input is provided from proprioceptors and motor input is provided from the primary motor cortex. As the partial pressure of oxygen falls due to increased consumption, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and the temperature increase due to metabolic activity in muscle fibers. Also, carbon dioxide is added via the buffering of the hydrogen ions produced as a result of lactic acid production. Chemoreceptors sense the changes in partial pressure and notify the medullary rhythmicity center to increase the rate and depth of breathing.

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

1)Movement of air
2)pH Homeostasis

Describe the movement of air from the nose to the alveoli.

Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Primary Bronchi, Secondary Bronchi, Tertiary Bronchi, Bronchioles, Terminal Bronchioles, Respiratory Bronchioles, Alveolar Ducts, Alveolar Sac, Alveolus

Interior chamber of nose.

Nasal Cavity

Increase surface area of nasal cavity

Nasal Conchae

Connects nasal cavity with larynx.

Pharynx

Air-filled cavities in skull bones.

Sinuses

Lymphoid tissue in pharynx.

Tonsils

Cartilaginous boxlike structure containing vocal folds.

Larynx

Opening between vocal folds.

Glottis

Flops over larynx opening in swallowing.

Epiglottis

Windpipe extending from larynx to bronchi.

Trachea

Bronchi that enter lungs.

Primary Bronchiole

Tiny air sacs at ends of alveolar ducts.

Alveoli

Membrane covering outer surface of lung.

Visceral Pleural

Membrane lining inner wall of thorax.

Parietal Pleural

Potential space between pleurae.

Pleural Cavity

Describe the structural changes in the tissue lining the inside of the respiratory system from the trachea to the alveoli. How does that structural change correspond to its function. Describe the analogy of the trachea being like a mucus escalator.

Pseudostratified in primary, secondary, tertiary. Ciliated columnar in bronchioles. Simple cuboidal in terminal bronchioles. Simple squamous in alveolar sacs

Describe the following Alveoli cells.
Type 1:
Type 2:
Type 3:

Type 1: Main site of gas exchange

Type 2: Secrete alveolar fluid that includes surfactant

Type 3: Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages

Define Pulmonary Ventilation.

Exchange between atmosphere and alveoli

Define External Respiration.

Exchange between alveoli and blood capillaries

Define Internal Respiration.

Exchange between blood capillaries and body tissues

True or False: Negative pressure in the pleural cavity is necessary for inspiration.

True

True or False: Surfactant prevents collapse of alveoli.

True

True or False: Forceful expiration involves contraction of abdominal and internal intercostal muscles.

True

True or False: Pneumothorax causes collapse of a lung.

True

True or False: Breathing exchanges air between the atmosphere and the alveoli of the lungs.

True

Air flows into the lungs during _______ and out of the lungs during _________. During breathing, air flows from an area of _________ pressure to an area of _____ pressure. Contraction of the _______ and the _________ muscles causes an increase in the ___________ of the lungs, which decreases the air ________ within the lungs. When the muscles of inspiration relax, the _____ of the lungs is decreased, which increases the air ________ within the lungs. Air flows out of the lungs because of the _______ air pressure within the lungs. In a forecefull exhale you recruit the use of the ____________ muscle, _________ muscle,

Air flows into the lungs during ( inhalation ) and out of the lungs during ( exhalation ). During breathing, air flows from an area of ( high )pressure to an area of ( low )pressure. Contraction of the (diaphragm)and the (external intercostals)muscles causes an increase in the (volume )of the lungs, which decreases the air (pressure )within the lungs. When the muscles of inspiration relax, the (volume)of the lungs is decreased, which increases the air (pressure)within the lungs. Air flows out of the lungs because of the (Higher)air pressure within the lungs. In a forecefull exhale you recruit the use of the (internal intercostals )muscle, (abdominal)muscle,

_____ is the respiratory volume of air exhaled in quiet expiration.

Tidal volume

_____ is the respiratory volume of air that always remains in the lungs.

Residual volume

_____ is the respiratory volume known as the volume forcefully exhaled after quiet expiration.

Expiratory reserve volume

_____ is the respiratory volume known as the volume forcefully inhaled after quiet inspiration.

Inspiratory reserve volume

_____ is the respiratory volume of the maximum volume forcefully exhaled after maximum forceful inspiration.

Vital capacity

_____ is the respiratory volume that averages about 500 ml.

Tidal volume

_____ is the respiratory volume that averages about 5,800 ml.

Total lung capacity

The exchange of respiratory gases occurs by _________. In comparison to the air in the alveoli, blood returning to the lungs has a lower concentration of _______ and a higher concentration of ________. Therefore, oxygen diffuses from the __________ into the __________, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the _________ into the _______. Blood leaving the lungs is ________-rich and _________-poor. In comparison to concentrations in tissue cells, blood entering tissue capillaries has a lower concentration of ________ and a higher concentration of _______. Therefore, oxygen diffuses from the _________ into the _________, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the ________ into the ________. Blood leaving tissue capillaries is __________-rich and _________-poor.

The exchange of respiratory gases occurs by ( diffusion). In comparison to the air in the alveoli, blood returning to the lungs has a lower concentration of (oxygen)and a higher concentration of (carbon dioxide). Therefore, oxygen diffuses from the (alveoli)into the (blood), and carbon dioxide diffuses from the ( blood )into the (alveoli). Blood leaving the lungs is (oxygen )-rich and (carbon dioxide)-poor. In comparison to concentrations in tissue cells, blood entering tissue capillaries has a lower concentration of (CO2)and a higher concentration of (oxygen). Therefore, oxygen diffuses from the ( blood )into the (body tissue ), and carbon dioxide diffuses from the ( body tissue )into the (blood ). Blood leaving tissue capillaries is ( CO2 )-rich and (oxygen )-poor.

How does Dalton's law relate to gaseous transport?

Each gas in a mixture exerts its own pressure known as partial pressure. Partial pressures determine diffusion of gases in the body

Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported through the blood.

Oxygen is mainly transported via hemoglobin
Carbon dioxide is transported as dissolved (7%) attached to hemoglobin (23%) and mainly as bicarbonate ions (70%)

The Respiratory Center is located in the _______, which controls the basic rhythm, and the _______, which fine tunes breathing patterns.

The Respiratory Center is located in the (Medulla), which controls the basic rhythm, and the (Pons), which fine tunes breathing patterns.

How does the Hering-Breuer Reflex influence the rate of respiration?

Prevent overinflation and deflation of the lungs

How do the Carotid and Aortic Bodies (Chemoreceptors) influence the rate of respiration?

Monitor chemical levels in the blood (H+, O2, and CO2)

How does the Limbic System influence the rate of respiration?

Emotional and Anxiety

How does Temperature influence the rate of respiration?

Increased body temp, increase breathing rate

How does pain influence the rate of respiration?

Sudden pain stops breathing

How does the irritation of pathways influence the rate of respiration?

Stop breathing and try to force irritation away

Why is the partial pressure of oxygen lower (and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide higher) in the alveoli than in the atmosphere?

It is a concentrated area and not an open system like the atmosphere

Premature infants are often given surfactant to help them breathe. How does it make breathing easier?

Prevents the closing of the alveoli

Why are tracheal cartilages C-shaped?

The esophagus sits posterior to the trachea

How could you distinguish between a left lung and a right lung after they were removed from the body?

Left lung is 10% smaller due to the cardiac notch

What is Boyle's law, and what role does it play in respiration?

In a closed system, volume is inversely proportional to pressure. Increase volume of lungs decrease pressure you draw air in

A member of the "Blues" gang with rushed into an ER after receiving a knife wound in the left side of his thorax. The diagnosis was pneumothorax and a collapsed lung. Explain exactly why the lung-collapsed and why only one lung collapsed.

If you break into the pleural cavity that pressure is equalized to the lung and the lung collapses. Each lung has its own set of membranes to prevent both lungs from collapsing

Some competitive swimmers hyperventilate before a race, thinking they can load up extra oxygen and hold their breaths longer underwater. While they can indeed hold their breaths longer, it is not for the reason they think. Furthermore, some have lost consciousness and drowned. What is wrong with this thinking, and what accounts for the loss of consciousness?

You drastically lower your carbon dioxide and essentially trick your body into thinking you have more oxygen than you do. Low levels of oxygen can cause you to faint underwater and drown.

What is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? Distinguish between the two major forms.

Obstructed to breathing effectively.
Chronic Bronchitis - irritation of the bronchioles
Emphysema - wasting away of the alveoli

Why does having pneumonia make it difficult to breath?

Buildup of excessive fluids prevents the diffusion of gases

What is the main cause of asthma?

A reaction to an allergen

Why is lung cancer the leading cause of cancer deaths? What happens to your lung tissue?

Lung cancer destroys your lungs making it extremely difficult to exchange oxygen and therefore deliver oxygen to your body.

What is Eupnea?

Normal Breathing pattern

What is Tachypnea?

Increased breathing rate

What is Dyspnea?

difficulty breathing

What is Apnea?

periods of suspended breathing

What is Respiratory acidosis?

Too much CO2 in the blood

What is Respiratory alkalosis?

Too little CO2 in the blood

What is Hypercapnia?

Excessive carbon dioxide

What is Hypoxia?

Tissue deprived of oxygen

What is Hypoxemia?

Decreased oxygen pressures

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