Archaeology Final Exam
|Minoan Crete||the place where knossos is. knossos is a palace. Greece. the first section is 2000-1700 B.C. and earthquake destroyed that part. the second section is 1700-1450 B.C. and it was destroyed by invaders. the third section is 1450 - 1200 B.C. and myceneans were there. 1200- possibly ended by invasion. when bronze age comes to end. Sir Arthur Evans in 1899 excavated the palace of knossos. he reconstructed wall paintings, put the paintings in the wrong spot. people who lived in the palace were not very well protected. palace has a link to all the palaces on the island. they thought crete might be an island that protects the myceneans.|
|horns of consecration||Knossos - religious significance over palace roof. central court.|
|Frescos of Knossos||Knossos - reconstructed wall paintings put in wrong spot and assumed dolphins were there when they might not have been.|
|Snake Goddess||Knossos - 12 are in museums but all but 2 are fake.|
|Bull Leaping fresco at knossos||fresco toreodo. bull fighting. 2 females and 1 male. possible origin of theseus and the minotaur myth|
|Akrotiri, Santorini||Santorini aka Thera. Knossos - Minoan colony. blew up by a volcano in 1628 BC. possible origin of the Atlantis myth|
|Landscape Archaeology||the study an interpretation of past landscapes through the recovery of physical and historical evidence. Landscape archaeology has included excavations of Near Eastern palace gardens, the backyards of Pompeii, the field systems of Mesoamerica, and the gardens of America's colonial gentry.|
|Settlement Archaeology||the study of changing human settlement patterns as people adapt to their environment. Since human settlements are not randomly distributed across the landscape|
|Household Archaeology||the new hot thing within the field of archaeology. Households can be represented by structural remains as well as by artifacts and features left by the household's residents. These may include the following areas... Megiddo, area K, micro excavation, 1x1. Found how many pots, what shape they were in etc. Italian guy did it.|
|Theories||Low Levels- theories are the observations that emerge from basic archaeological fieldwork: the actual "data" or "facts" of archaeology. High-Level (or general) theories are the broad, overarching research strategies.|
Middle Range theories- show how the high and low level theoretical extremes are brought together but conducting so called middle range research. archaeologists are generating the knowledge necessary to relate the world of archaeological facts to the world of general behavioral theory.
|Ethnoarchaeology||ethnoarchaeologists live among contemporary communities, but with the specific purpose of understanding how such societies use material culture- how they make their tools and weapons, why they build their settlements where they do, and so on.|
Richard Gould - he was an ethnoarchaeologist. As he was excavating he did a survey, found the pottery, found the garbage, and he started digging. But he didn't find any houses ☹ he was digging up dead people too... houses were elsewhere. He dug in the landfill/garbage pit. The people said they lived on the houses then threw their garbage to the valley below
|University of Arizona's Garbage Project||Dr. William Rathje- archaeology teacher at Arizona "garbologist". He studies garbage of today and compares it to different time periods. Did surveys. found $3,000 a day in garbage. Tried to find out patterns. When did they throw out meat etc.|
|experimental archaeology||in between actual object and big picture. studying the archaeological process through experimental reconstruction of earlier conditions.|
|Ishi||Oroville, California 1911 - Alfred Kroeber (UC Berkley) befriended him and Saxton. Kroeber wrote the book Ishi. They put in mental ward originally. Ishi showed them how to make everything. Clothing, tools, houses, etc. Saxton Pope went shooting and hunting together in Golden Gate Park - in 1923. experimental archaeology|
|Tenochtitlan||Aztec Tenochtitlan (1325-1519 AD) - downtown Mexico City. Aristocrat. need to excavate under the city. Problematic. They had to make islands of dirt and then build on top of it. Man made city. Cortes drew a map of Tenochtitlan. |
o Calendar Stone - from downtown Mexico City
o Templo Mayor at Tenochitlan
o Aztec Figures and ceremonies
o Skull rack
Teotihuacan (100-750 AD) - Main road with temples. Sun pyramid and moon pyramid. You can go all the way to the top of the temple of the sun. excavate by going into temple. Cline called it a shell game. Temple of the Feathered Serpent - 25 miles to the north of Mexico City
The Aztecs thought the inhabitants of Teotihuacan were their ancestors.
|Maya||modern day Maya. Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras. Why did the civilization end? Big Question. |
o Tikal (Maya) Guatemala (200-800 AD). Largest known of these Mayan cities. Located 341 miles north of Guatemala City. Once home to an estimated 100,000 Maya. The site has more than 3000 structures including temples and palaces and is located in Tikal National Park, which is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is home to many species of wildlife. Would be completely covered by vegetation if it wasn't preserved. Rainforest if covering everything. Reconstructions done. Have writing. Stela 31 - features an elaborate hieroglyphic text detailing prominent members Tikal's Early Classic dynasty. Stela 16 portrays hasaw kan k'wali
|Copan||• Copan (Maya) Honduras 200-900 AD|
o Well kept up. Difficult to excavate and maintain because of vegetation. The ball court is one of the best ones preserved anywhere. It's supposed to be the social center here. Stele D and Stele H pictures. Mayan temple reconstruction is colorful. At copan there is a list of all the rulers and their dates. Call him "Smoke Jaguar" lol. By 984 there are no more names.
|Palenque||(Maya) 300-900 AD Mexico|
o Don't know the names of the temple but know who they are dedicated to like the sun. Are there people living in these places all year? Or is it a ceremonial palace? Looks like people are living there all year because that's probably how it was maintained. Ball Court. Inscriptions. The Temple of the inscriptions was found intact and the tomb of Pacal was in there. The temples were built one within another. There was a surprising amount of stuff found in there. Pacal of Palenque 615-673 AD. Lord Pacal's jade mask (made of pure jade). The tomb of Pacal descirbes the tree of life and how he is going to the underworld. discovered in tact.
|Moche and Sipan Map||Peru - Inca - Moche|
oLord of Sipan Tomb (750 AD). Tomb discovered intact. Looters found the local tomb. Archaeologists hoped there were more royal tombs so they started excavating and that's how they found the Lord of Sipan Tomb. Found weird things above the tomb. Body wrapped up weirdly. Had no feet. Guard for the tomb (of the king's body). A lot of bronze artifacts that were covering the army turned green. Then they started finding gold. Earrings and other stuff. Need to bring in conservators. this happens to you because all the stuff would fall to pieces if you try to pick it up. Walter Alva was the local archaeologist. Liked peanuts. Weird. Masterpiece of jewelry crafting. Thing with lord of Sipan on it himself?
|Exchange and Trade||have been defined as: "the mutual appropriate movement of goods between hands."|
• People make trade connections and set up the exchange systems that handle trade goods when they need to acquire goods and services that are not available to them within their own immediate area.
• Exchange can be internal within a society or external with other groups
• Anthropologists have come to distinguish three main types of exchange: reciprocal, redistributive, and market
|Reciprocity exchange||mutual exchange of goods between two individuals or groups. at the heart of most gift giving and barter trade. ex: Cung Bushmen. hunting and gathering. what is distinctive about reciprocity exchange is not that products and services are simply given away without any thought or expectation of return. things that are expected: that there is no immediate return, no systematic calculation of the value of services and products exchanged, an overt denial that a balance is being calculated or that the balance must come out even|
|Silent Trade|| the objects to be exchanged are set out in a clearing in and the first group retreats out of sight. the next group comes out and gets the gift if they like or leaves it there. |
ex: mbuti of ituri forest trade. meat and bananas with the bantu
|Trade Partnerships||the most common solution to the problem of trading without kinships ties or state supervised markets. members of different bans or villages refer to each other as metaphorical kin. the members of trading expeditions deal exclusively with their trade partners or greet each other as brothers and give them food. trade partners try to deal with one another in conformity with the principle of reciprocity. deny an interest in getting the best of bargain and offer wares as if they were gifts. regifting. |
ex: •Bronislaw Malinowski 1884-1942- looked at trading relationships. Kula Armband and necklace - traded by the chiefs. Kula ring boat
|Gift exchange and gift giving|| gift exchange or gift giving is one type of reciprocity|
Gift giving is a common medium of exchange and trade in societies that are relatively self-supporting. The exchange of gifts is designed primarily to reinforce a social relationship between both individuals
|Redistributive exchange||Labor products of several different individuals are brought to a central place sorted by type, counted, and then given to producers and non producers alike.|
|market exchange||covers both places and particular styles of trading|
•The administration and organization encourage people to set aside one place for trading and to establish relative stable prices for stable commodities. this stability does not mean regulated prices but some regulation is needed in a network of markets in which commodities from an area of abundant supplies are sold to one with strong demand for the same materials. it is the mechanism of the exchange relationship party particularly requires some regulation.
|Amenhotep III||Amenhotep III Faience Vase at Mycenae - not just itinerary, possibly embassy? Plaque there too called The Aegean List. Only found in Egypt. But found at Mycenae. Why? More fragments of plaques found there. Look at map of possible trade routes.|
|Mayan Calendar||200 BC el mirador. |
Dresden Codex 1100 AD Yucatan Peninsula. Maya Codex, considered a priestly handbook. was in the royal library of Dresden. The head of library's name was Ernst Forstermann in 1906 he was able to unlock the mayan counting system. on page 74 it's the end of the world with a picture of water flooding, serpents, and other stuff. national geographic cover in 1922.
Calendrical system - 3 part system. 1st part = day, 2nd part = month, 3rd part = long count
•Eric Thomposn- father of mayan archaeology. The maya were living people with day to day lives thinking about dynasties. Also were obsessed with time. But that's not all they were. They wanted to mark the passage of hteir own lives, history, and dynasties.
|Chaco Canyon||North West Mexico 10th - 12th centuries AD|
basket maker pit house 500-900 AD
unit Pueblos. Pueblo Bonito - oldest great house, 5 stories and 800 rooms. only a couple people live there. round rooms which are ritual spaces where people might live. thick walls
chocolate shows that they are communicating with mayas. t shaped doors.
R. Gwinn Vivian, Steve Lekson - apartments under hidden palaces and temples
|Cultural Resource Management||Cultural Resources - are the human-made and natural physical features associated with human activity. They are unique and nonrenewable and can include sites, structures, and artifacts significant in history or prehistory. |
Cultural resource management (CRM) is the application of management skills to preserve important parts of our cultural heritage, both historic and prehistoric, for the benefit of the public today and in the future.
Managing the archaeological record - Cultural resource management, and the archaeological research that goes with it, is but one component of a much larger enterprise: the study of the effects of human activity on the total landscape.
|Antiquities Act of 1906||The first formal preservation of America's past began with the passage of this act, primarily aimed at controlling a lucrative trade in painted pueblo pots from the Southwest.|
|Historic Sites Act of 1935||This baseline act gave the National Park Service a broad mandate to identify, protect, and preserve cultural properties. Numerous state and Native American tribal laws amplify and complicate this already complex legislative picture|
|Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960||This act authorized archaeologists to dig and salvage sites that were in danger of destruction.|
|Historic Preservation Act of 1966||This act set up a national framework for historic preservation, requiring the federal government to establish a nationwide system for identifying, protecting, and rehabilitating what are commonly called 'historic places." The act called for the establishment of the National Register of Historic Places (a "historic place" could include prehistoric and historic archaeological sites) and required federal agencies to protect Register properties when development projects were planned.|
|National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).||The NEPA went far beyond protection and laid down a comprehensive policy for government land-use planning and resource management. It requires federal agencies to weigh environmental, historical, and cultural values whenever federally owned land is modified or private land is modified with federal funds. NEPA ordered all federal agencies to take the lead in historic preservation and to locate properties that might qualify for the National Register. They were also to develop programs to contribute to protection of important historic properties on non-federal lands.|
|Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 (ARPA)||The ARPA gave more stringent protection to archaeological sites over one hundred years old on federal land. People removing archaeological materials from federal lands without a permit are committing a felony; they can be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced to a year in prison. The penalties rise sharply when more valuable finds are involved. This legislation is aimed at commercial vandals; it does not forbid individuals from removing arrowheads "located on the surface of the ground." Unfortunately, it gives no protection to archaeological resources on privately-owned land. Amendments to ARPA in recent years have tightened the definition of what constitutes an "archaeological resource" and have legislated more severe penalties for violations of the original law|
|UNESCO||Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property 1970|
|the abandoned shipwreck of 1988||This act extended protection to shipwrecks and defined ownership of abandoned vessels in state and federal waters more clearly. It is an important weapon in the fight against unauthorized looting of shipwrecks, looting that all too often masquerades as "underwater archaeology."|
|Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990||NAGPRA requires all museums and institutions receiving federal funds to inventory their holdings of Native American human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, and what are called "objects of cultural patrimony" in the collections that they control. They must establish, as best they can, whether their individual holdings have cultural affiliations, or, in the case of skeletons, lineal descendants in living Native American groups. If relationships are established, the institutions are required to notify the relevant Native American organization about the existence of the materials and offer to repatriate them. NAGPRA also protects all Native American graves and other cultural objects found within archaeological sites on federal and tribal land.|
|Piltdown man|| 1908-1915|
said to be missing link b/ family tree b/ humans and apes
proven to be fake 1953
chemical analysis showed skull human 600 yrs old
the jawbone modern family orangoutang
found jaw bone and skull together
|The Dorak Affair|| 1958|
the guy wanted to see bracelet brought him back to house saw that it was real
but could never find the house again
|Ivory Pomigranite|| 1979-1984|
inscription mentioning Yahweh
purchase by israel museum 500,050 inscription talked about solo mans temple
only thing that spoke about temple
Andre Lemaire- bought it and sold
letters don't match up to original
|Burial box of james the brother of Jesus|| october 2002|
the inscription said that the brother of jesus was in the box
James Ossuary- had box
Andre Lemaire looked at box and authenticated it
think it fake
|Jehoash Tablet||"...a black stone tablet with an inscription purportedly concerning King Jehoash's repairs to the First Temple during the ninth century BCE. Jehoash is known from the Hebrew Bible as a king who ruled over Judah from ca. 836 to 798 BCE. His repairs to the Temple are recounted in the Bible (2 Kings 12:1-21), which means that the stone tablet, if genuine, would immediately validate the historicity of the biblical account." |
- fraud squad- Yuval Goren
four people arrested for forgery
|Simca Jacobbic|| Naked archaeologist who said he found the lost tomb of jesus|
discovered by real archaeologist but is not the lost tomb
|first principle||The most basic principle in archaeology, therefore, is that the discipline requires evidence to function. |
This is what stands at the root of scholars' constant and consistent demand for evidence when faced with new hypotheses. It is not some sort of pedantic cop-out as it often seems to be perceived by alternative supporters, it is not based on a desire to crush new ideas or enforce any imagined orthodoxy: it is the expression of the most basic requirement of archaeology -- "Show me the evidence upon which your hypothesis relies." Professional archaeologists ask it of themselves constantly.
|Second Principle||The second principle is the nature of archaeological evidence itself. After 150 years of practice, what constitutes archaeological evidence is clear. People are messy. Communities of people are very messy. For the archaeologist, this is a fortunate circumstance, since people will leave physical remains of all sorts behind them. |
So, when archaeologists encounter a "theory" for which not one verifiable object, never mind a site or a town or a burial, is adduced, they are rightly suspicious. In museums around the world, artifacts from human cultures spanning tens of thousands of years fill the display cases, from bone pins to weapons of war. Think for a moment what a display case for the Lost Civilization (LC) would look like. It would be empty.
|third principle||The interpretation of archaeological evidence, especially for cultures which have left us no written record, is a difficult business. The data are often open to multiple interpretations, and methodological debates rage within archaeological circles as to how the data should even be approached. Often two or more competing hypotheses will be equally convincing, resulting in camps of supporters forming around them. Only the continued testing of each and further investigation can resolve such conflicts. |
So, while interpretative uncertainty and debate certainly prevail among archaeologists, there is one respect in which they are all united. Their hypotheses, to be convincing, must take all pertinent data into account. This is the third principle of archaeology: Hypotheses must respect the evidence. Any hypothesis that runs demonstrably against the evidence will be instantly rejected. Any hypothesis that is based on a selective presentation of the evidence will also be rejected, and for a very obvious reason. Who is to say that the hypothesis is not disproven by the evidence not taken into account?
1st C CE
first built by Herod the Great
Yigael Yaddin- Archaeologist
Romans made sure nobody could get in or out of Masada
Roman fort- Desert hasn't changed
Masada was totally surrounded
remains of all individual tents or houses
Jesifus- recorded Masada
Amnon Ben-tor-says masada says masada was real
Nachman Ben-Yahuda- says it is a myth
second wall inside-wood inside than dirty than wood again
battering wall hitting wall- romans
Israelis commit suicide
|Tarim Mummies|| 1900 BC- 200 AD|
white mummies in china