INTRO TO CJ FINAL (down with the Murphy Law)

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The political era of policing was characterized by the following?

hiring of officers through connections to elected officials.

The process in which the members learn the symbols, beliefs, and values of a group is known as:

Socialization

The set of emotional & behavioral characteristics developed by members of an occupational group in response to a work situation & environmental influences is known as:

unrking personality.

_____ are categorized by a division of labor, a chain of command

bureaucracies

Which of James Q Wilson's styles of policing is marked by professionalism and emphasis on law enforcement?

Legalistic

Most police, work is reactive, which means that police primarily:

respond to citizen calls for service

The approach to policing that involves assigning priorities to various calls for service is known as:

differential response

Preventive patrol emphasizes:

making police presence known

In federal agencies the work of special agents is most similar to that of:

Detective

Community policing philosophies suggest that citizens should be viewed as______/

Customers.

To obtain an arrest warrant, police must demonstrate:

probable cause

In the case of US v. Brayton (2002), the UUS supreme court ruled that police officers:

Are not obligated to notify citizens they have a right to say "no" to a search.

In which of the following cases did the US supreme court establish that criminal defendants must be read their rights?

Miranda v. Arizona 1966

Which of the following is not a required component of the Miranda warnings?

Notification that suspects have the right to a speedy trial.

Evidence that would have been discovered even without the need for a warrant can be admissible under the:

Inevitable discovery rule.

Which of the following situations best describe the good faith exception to the exclusionary rule?

Officer believes he/she is acting correctly under the rules of evidence, but is actually incorrect.

What type of force may police legally employ in carrying out their jobs?

Legitimate

Which of the following cases did the US supreme court rule that police may not use deadly force in apprehending unarmed fleeing felons?

Tennessee v. Garner (1985)

Which unit in a police department receives and investigates complaints against officers?

Internal Affairs.

State courts of last resort are usually called:

Supreme courts

In which rule does the judge spend significant amounts of the behind closed doors taking to prosecutors and defense attorneys?

Negotiator

Which of the following factors increases the power of the prosecutor:

Many of their decisions are hidden from public view.

Which of the following describes the prosecution?

Prosecutors views him/herself as an instrument of law enforcement.

How might public opinion affect a prosecutors decision to try a certain cause?

Most prosecutors are elected, so their decisions should reflect community values.

In which of the following systems does a court administrator oversee the appointment of counsel?

A coordinated assignment system.

A recent survey revealed that which of the following system of elective representation is most common in the 100 most populous countries in the US?

Public defender

Which of the following statements about the bail system is true?

Bail discriminates against the less influential members of society.

In the case of US v. Salerno and cafero the supreme court decided:

The use of preventative detention was constitutional

The practice under which judges grant release of the defendant is employed and has power in the community is known as:

Release on recognition

In criminal trials most states use juries with _______ members.

12

An attorney may remove a prospective juror without giving a reason using which of the following

peremptory challenge

Which of the following types of evidence is not used on witness recollection, but still provides evidence about the crime?

Demonstrative evidence

A legal petition requesting that a judge examine whatever an individual is being properly detained is called:

Habeaus corpus

The blue curtain is a term used to describe:

the secrecy and insulation from others in society that is a consequence of the police subculture.

Which of the following traits is said to be fond on all levels of policing:

cynicism

Which of the following is not one of the six core beliefs of the heart of the police culture?

All of the above are core beliefs in the police culture.

What historical era of policing involved close ties between police and local leaders of the government?

The political era.

A "True Bill" filled by a grand jury and charging a suspect with a specific crime is called:

indictment.

Which of the following people is responsible for sentencing:

the judge

Which of the following is not characteristic of the criminal justice system:

independence of actors.

The components of criminal justice are best described as a :

system

According to Cole and Smith which of the following is not a goal of the criminal justice system?

Dramatization of a crime

When a person is physically taken into custody, it is known as:

an arrest

Which layer of the criminal justice wedding cake consists of serious felonies:

Layer 2

Which of the following federal agencies is responsible for protecting travelers and interstate commerce:

the TSA

A key concept in the criminal justice process involving the mutual transfer of resources among individual actors is known as:

exchange

The criminal justice agency on the front line in controlling crime is :

police

The two justice systems in the US are:

State and federal

The determination of whether or not a defendant is guilty is known as:

adjudication

Which of the following refers to a difference in interaction between groups:

Disparity

The fact that federal sentencing guidelines punish users of crack cocaine about one hundred times more Harley than users of powered cocaine is used by Cole and smith as an example of which of the following:

Unequal status in society can shape criminal justice policy and vice versa

Crime such as gambling/prostitution that are not "wrong in themselves" but are prohibited by government are known as:

mala prohibita

The type of crime of ten termed "street crimes" or ordinary crime involving criminal acts that are least profitable and least protected is also known as

Visible crime

Which is an example of visible crime

Murder

Which is an example of occupational crime

embezzlement

Crimes committed by groups

organized crimes

The concept that much more crime occurs than is reported to police is known as which:

the dark tigure of crime

A source of crime data from interviews conducted to gather on unreported as well as reported crimes is called:

The national crime victimizantion survey.

Why does the NCVS not measure homicide?

Homicide victims can not be surveyed

According to Cole and Smith which is not an explanation for the recent drop in both violent and property crimes?

Greater awareness of the staleness cost of crime

According to the life style exposure model, which of the following groups is most likely to be victimized?

young black males

Which of the following statement concerning race and crime victim is true?

African Americans and other minorities are most likely to be victims of violent crimes

These individuals are at highest risk of victimization for violent crime according to the life style exposure model:

Young, African American males.

Researchers who focus on the genetic predisposition to criminal behavior are working under these theoretical prospective of behavior:

Biological theories

According to Sigmund Freud's theory of personality, which stage or life is meant to be most significant?

Early childhood

Which of the following indicates that for a crime to occur there must be an act of commission or orrission by the accused?

Actus re-us

A guilty or blameworthy state of mind describes the emotion of:

Mans rea

Entrapment occurs when:

The accused is lured into crime by the police

What distinguishes the defense of self-defense from defense of necessity:

Necessity occurs when an offender must break the law in order to save themselves fore self-defense. this is not the case.

In 2005 some survivors of Hurricane Katrina illegally entered closed grocery stores to take food there may argue they are not guilty using the defense of:

NECESSITY

The idea than an accused can not be criminally responsible if the crime was the result og mental disease or mental defect is known as:

Durham Rule.

Which of the following terms is used to distinguish murder from manslaughter?

Malice afore thought

The main purpose of the comprehensive crime control act of 1984 was:

to limit the insanity defense to those with every mental disease or defect.

How is procedural criminal law defined?

By courts through judicial ruling.

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