greek u looking thing
how hard it is to take away electrons
how badly an atom wants electrons
how large the radius for an atom is
trend for ionization energy (period, family)
increases across a period (highest for noble gases), decreases down a family
trend for electronegativity (period, family)
increases across a period (none for noble gases!), decreases down a period
trend for atomic radius
decreases across a period, increases down a family
1,000g of water, 1kg, 1,000cm(cubed), 1,000mL,
attraction between nucleus and valence electrons (period, family)
increases across a period, decreases down a family
Shielding effect (period, family)
decreases across a period, increases down a family
how to name binary type 1 ionic
how to name binary type 2 ionic
metal(roman numerals), non-metal(-ide)
how to name binary type 3 covalent
greek prefixes in front of both non-metals (dont have to put mono in front of first non-metal but do in second one)
greek prefix for one
greek prefix for two
greek prefix for three
greek prefix for four
greek prefix for five
greek prefix for six
greek prefix for seven
greek prefix for eight
greek prefix for nine
greek prefix for ten
what type of compounds produce conductivity when put in water?
what type of compounds are sour?
how do you name name metals plus polyatomic ions?
metal+name of polyatomic ion
how do you name binary acids
(hydrogen +non-metal) hydro+non-metal(-ic) acid
how do you name oxyacids
(hydrogen+polyatomic ion) polyatomic ion (-ic if -ate, -ite if -ous) acid
what is methane? is it organic what group is it in?
CH4 is organic hydrocarbon
what is ethane? is it organic what group is it in?
C2H6 is organic hydrocarbon
what is propane? is it organic what group is it in?
C3H8 is organic hydrocarbon
what is butane? is it organic what group is it in?
C4H10 is organic hydrocarbon
name hydrocarbons 5-10
pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane
how do you find the number of hydrogens in a hydrocarbon
Carbon times 2, +2= # of hydrogens
formula and unit for density
what are chemical property?
when after the observation you have a different substance
What is a physical property?
when after the observation you have the same substance
what is an exothermic reaction?
when heat is given off
what is an endothermic reaction?
when heat is absorbed
what is an element
a single element
what is a compound
multiple elements combined together
what is the unit and symbol for volume
what is the unit and symbol for Mass
what is the unit and symbol for length
what is the unit and symbol for energy
what is the unit and symbol for number of atoms
what is the unit and symbol for time
what categories of light are visible to the human eye
anything in the light spectrum
what is the wavelength for red? for purple?
what are the categories of light in order from highest frequency to lowest?
gamma rays, x-rays, ultra-violet, visible light, infrared (heat), radio ways
what was aristotles theory?
that matter was infinitely divisible
What was democritus theory
matter is made up of invisible particles called "atomos"
What did dalton do
came up with atomic theory of matter 1) all matter is made up of atoms 2)atoms cant be created/destroyed 3)atoms of a particular element are all alike 4)atoms of different elements are different 5)all compounds that exist are made up of whole # combinations of atoms
what did Mendelev do
created the order of the periodic table
what did JJ thompson do and how
discovered the electron using a cathode ray
What did Ernest Rutherford do and how
discovered the nucleus by shooting particle beams at a piece of gold foil, most went through foil but some bounced back showing that atoms have a dense center which was not know before
what did Niels Bohr do
discovered electrons live in specific orbits, based it off planetary model and when electrons drop orbits they lose energy(give off light) when they drop up they gain energy(absorb light) color of light shows what orbit electron is in
why do electrons give off/absorb light?
because when travel in waves, travel in whole number of waves and either have to drop/give waves(energy) to fit the number of waves in the orbital its moving to
where are the most reactive elements found?
in the top right and bottom left corners except!!!! noble gases who dont react with anything
where are metals found? non-metals?
metals are left of stairstep non-metals rights
what is a cation?
what is the unit for atomic radii? what is it equivalent to?
angstroms (A with a circle on top) equal to 1*10(-10)nm
which side of the periodic table becomes positive ions? negatives ions? and why?
positive-left negative-right elements on the left tend to lose electrons which in turn creates more protons than electrons which makes a positive charge, opposite for elements on the right, they gain electrons making a negative charge
what are the subatomic particles name, charge and location
electron (negative, orbitals around nucleus) neutrons (no charge nucleus) protons (positive, nucleus)
What is oxidation state?
how do you name alcohols and write their formulas
take the formula of the hydrocarbons remove a hydrogen and replace with an oxygen, with name take hydrocarbon name add (-ol) and alcohol to end
is hydrogen a metal or a non-metal?
What are the two transition metals that are not located in the middle?
lead and tin
what is the formula/molecular mass
total mass of a compound(all the elements atomic weights added together)
why is a water molecule polar?
the oxygen hogs the electrons because it has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen so one side of the molecule is negative because the electron is most often there and the another side is positive because of the lack of electrons
what are the diatomic atoms?
Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Bromine Chlorine Hydrogen Iodine
What is empirical formula?
lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound
what is the composition of air
21% Oxygen 78%Nitrogen 1% or less of Argon
What types of bonds are there and which is the hardest to break?
single, double, and triple bond Triple is the hardest to break
What are reactants?
The compounds or elements that take part/go into in a chemical reaction
What is a product
the compounds that result from a chemical reaction
What are the 4 states of matter and their symbols
gas(g) liquid(l) solid(s) aqueous/dissaspcoated (aq)
what does it mean to be disassociated
when two bonded ions have their bonds broken in water due to the water's polarity that is called disassociation
What are the compounds called that disassociate
what are the species inventory
all compounds/ions that are in water
what is the atomic number
number of protons
what is the atomic weight
number of protons plus nuetrons