Chapter 7 Cellular Structure and Function

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organization

the orderly structure shown by living things

cell

is the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms

cell theory

one of the fundamental ideas of modern biology and has 3 principles 1) cells are basic unit of structure 2) have one or more cells 3) arise from previously existing cells

eukaryotic cells

contains a nucleus and other organelles that are the bound by membranes, also referred to as membrane bound organelles
-multicellular organisms
-have a nucleus
-have a membrane bound organelles
-unicellular organisms
-contains organelles

nucleus

is a distinct central organelle that contains the cell's general material in the form of DNA

plasma membrane

us a special boundary helps control what enters and leaves the cell

prokaryotic cell

cells without a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles
-bacteria
-do not have membrane young organelles
-have lose strands of DNA
-unicellular organisms
-contains organelles

three main ideas of the cell theory

1)All living organisms are composed of one or more cells
2) Cells are the basic units of structure and organization of all living organisms
3)Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of the genetic material onto their daughter cells

ion

an atom or group of atoms with a positive or negative electric charge

fluid mosaic model

a plasma membrane with components constantly in motion, sliding past one another within the lipid bilayer

phospholipid bilayer

two layers of phospholipids are arranged tail-to-tail. In the plasma membrane, phospholipids arrange themselves in a way that allows plasma membrane to exist in the watery environment

selective permeability

by which a membrane allows some substances to pass through while keeping others out

transport protein

more needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane and therefore contributes to the selective permeability of the plasma membrane

Five ways that the membrane can deal with materials

1) keeping molecules out
2) allowing molecules in at any time
3)allowing molecules only at certain times
4)allowing molecules in only in limited amounts
5)expelling wastes from inside the shell

enzyme

a protein that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

cell structures

1)cell wall
2)cytoskeleton
3)cilium
4)centriole
5)flagellum

related to genetic material

1)nucleolus
2)ribosomes

food, storage, and waste

1) golgi apparatus
2)cytoplasm
3)endoplasmic reticulum
4)lysosome
5)vacuole

Energy

1)chloroplasts
2mitochondria

Chloroplasts

contains chlorophyll (photosynthesis)

Mitochondria

membrane-bound organelle that converts fuel into energy that is available to the rest of the cell

Vacuole

temporary storage of materials

Centriole

important for all cell division

Cilium

short, hairlike projection that functions in cell movement wave-like motion

Flagellum

long, tail-like projection with whip-like motion that helps cells move

Cytoplasm

the environment inside the plasma membrane is a semi-fluid material. Is in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Cytoskeleton

is a supporting network of long, thin protein fibers that form a framework for the cell and provide an anchor for the organelles inside a cell

nucleus

in eukaryotic cells -- central bound organelle that directs cell processes; contains the cell's DNA; stores information for cell growth, function, and reproduction

nuclear envelope

double membrane that surrounds the nucleus

ribosomes

helps manufacture proteins

nucleolus

produces ribosomes inside the nucleus of eukaryotic cells

endoplasmic reticulum

highly folded membrane system in eukaryotic cells that is the site for protein and lipid synthesis

golgi apparatus

flattened stacks of tubular membranes that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into vesicles and transports them to other organelles or out of the cell

vacuole

membrane-bound vesicle for temporary storage of materials such as food, enzymes, and wastes

lysosome

vesicles that contains substances that digest excess or worn-out organelles

centrioles

organelle that plays a role in cell division and is made of microtubules

mitochondria

converts fuel particles (sugars) into useable energy

chloroplasts

double membrane organelle that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy through photosynthesis

cell wall

in plants - the rigid barrier that surrounds the outside of the plasma membrane, is made of cellulose, and provides support and protection to the cell

cillia / flagella

projections that allow the cells to move or move to substances along the surfaces along the surface of the cell

plant cells only

-chlorophyll
-larger vacuoles
-cell walls

Both plant and animal cells

-vacuoles
-nucleus
-cytoskeleton
-endoplasmic reticulum
-flagella
-golgi apparatus
-lysosomes
-mitochondria
-plasma membrane
-ribosomes
-cytoplasm

animal cells only

-centrioles
-smaller vacuoles
-cillia

endocytosis

energy-requiring process by which large substances from the outside environment can enter a cell

active transport

movement of substance from a region of lower concentration to a region of high concentration

diffusion

net movement of particles from an area where there are many particles of the substance to an area where there are fewer

hypertonic solution

a solution that has a higher concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside the cell, causing water to leave the cell by osmosis (cell will shrink).

isotonic solution

a solution in which the inside of the cell and the solution it is in have the same concentration of water and solutes as the outside, resulting in the cell retaining its normal shape because there is no net movement of water

exocytosis

energy-requring process by which a cell expels wastes and secrets substances at the plasma membrane

osmosis

diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

facillitated diffusion

form of transport that uses transport proteins to move other ions and small molecules across the plasma membrane

dynamic equilibrium

condition in which there is continuous movement but overall change in concentration

hypotonic solution

a solution that has a lower concentration of solutes outside than inside the cell, causing water to flow into the cell by osmosis (cell will swell)

water and the plasma membrane

-water flows freely into and out of the cell
-osmosis is the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
-flow through helps create and maintain homeostasis
-homeostasis is organism maintains conditions suitable for life

name the invention that helped scientists discover the cell

the microscope

tell why hooke called the structures he saw in the cork cellulae ("small rooms")

the boxlike cells of cork reminded him of the cells in which monks live at a monasty

name the microscope that uses a series of magnifying lenses

compound light microscope

The _______ includes the following.

cell theory

All living organisms are composed of one or more _______.

cells

Cells are basic unit of structure and organization of all living___________.

organisms

Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of their ________ onto their _________.

genetic material to their daughter cells

E or P organisms that break down molecules to generate energy

p and e

E or P organisms that have cells lacking internal membrane - bound organelles

p

E or P organisms whose cells do not have a nuclei

p

E or P organisms that have either unicellular or multicellular

e

E or P organisms that are generally unicellular

p

E or P organisms that have cells containing organelles

e

E or P organisms that have plasma membranes

p and e

The process of maintaing balance inside a cell

homeostasis

A boundary between a cells and its environment

plasma membrane

the feature of the plasma membrane that keeps some substances out

selectively permeable

separates prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells form the watery environment in which they exist

plasma membrane

The quality of a plasma membrane that allows oxygen and glucose to move in

selectively permeable

Maintained by the plasma membrane

homeostasis

makes up most of the molecules in the plasma membrane

lipids

a molecule that has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate - containing compound

phospholipid

move substances through the plasma membrane

transport protein

two layers of phospholipids arranged tail-to-tail

phospholipid bilayer

the phospholipid "sea" in which embedded substances float

fluid mosaic model

light vs. electron microscope

light- color and living things
electron- no color dead things

organelles

specialized internal cell structure that carries out specific cell functions such as protein synthesis and energy transformation

The _______ is a structure that surrounds a cell and helps control what enters and exits the cell.

plasma membrane

A _______ has membrane - bound organelles

eukaryote

_____are basic units of all organisms

cells

If a microscope has a series of three lenses that magnify individually 5x, 5x, and 7x what is the total magnification of the microscope?

175x

Why might a microscopist, who specializes in the use of microscopes to examine specimens, use a light microscope instead of an electron microscope?

The light microscope can see in color and things that are alive.

A _______ is the basic structure that makes up the plasma membrane.

phospholipid

______ proteins move needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane.

transport

________ is the property that allows only some substances in and out of the cell.

selectively permeable

Which situation would increase the fluidity of a phospholipid bilayer?

increasing the number of cholesterol molecules

How does the orientation of the phospholipids in the bilayer allow a cell to interact with its internal and external environments?

polar heads outside the cell
non polar head inside the cell

What might happen to a cell if it no longer could produce cholesterol?

the cells plasma membrane would be less fluid and homeostasis can't be maintained

______stores wastes

vacuole

______produces ribosomes

nucleolus

________generates energy for a cell

mitochondrion

________sorts proteins into vesicles

Golgi apparatus

Which structure synthesizes proteins that will be used by the cell?

ribosomes

Which id the site of protein synthesis?

endoplasmic reticulum

In which structure would you expect to find a cell wall?

cell from an oak tree

Compare the chloroplast to the mitochondrion.

Chloroplast- double membrane organelle with thylakoids containing chlorophyll (photosynthesis) light energy to chemical energy
Mitochondrion- a membrane bound organelle that makes energy chemical to APT

What factors affect the rate of diffusion?

-concentration
-pressure
-temperature

Which type of transport requires energy input from the cell?

active transport

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