Psychology-Chapter 11

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Reasonably stable patterns of actions, feelings, and motives are referred to as

personality.

According to the ____ theory, the personality is characterized by a dynamic struggle or conflict.

psychoanalytic

The removal of anxiety-provoking ideas from awareness is called

repression.

Which of the following is the best illustration of an oral fixation?

someone who smokes

The difference between Jung's theory and Freud's theory is that Jung

de-emphasized the importance of sexual instincts.

Which of the following represents an archetype, according to Jung?

the all-powerful God, a fairy godmother, the wise old man.

Alfred Adler believed that people are basically motivated by an ____.

inferiority complex

Karen Horney believed that the view that girls feel inferior to boys was based on ____.

Western cultural prejudice

Erikson's theory emphasizes

social relationships.

Brad's mother neglected him as an infant and did not show affection. As a result, he now has difficulty in his relationships with others. This most clearly supports

psychosocial development theory.

According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is attainment of

ego identity

Personality characteristics that can be inferred from observable behaviors are called

traits.

According to Hippocrates the four "humors"are

choleric, sanguine, phlegmatic, and melancholic

The five-factor model includes which five basic personality factors?

extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness

The traits of the five-factor model of personality are thought to be

related to people's basic temperaments.

Patty is outgoing, sociable and assertive. According to the five-factor model she demonstrates

extraversion.

A limitation of the trait theory is that

it is descriptive rather than explanatory.

____ refers to gaining knowledge by observing others, even when the learner does not perform the observed behavior.

Observational learning

According to social cognitive theory, children's views of what is masculine and feminine are

related to those of their parents.

A major criticism of the social cognitive theory is that they

does not account for self awareness.

A major criticism of learning theories is that

they do not explain individual differences in personality.

The psychodynamic perspective focuses on ____, while the humanistic perspective focuses on ____.

unconscious desires; self-actualization

Humanism endorses the concept(s)

self-fulfillment, ethical behavior, free choice.

According to Rogers "self" involves

a sense of who and what you are, how and why you react to the environment, your values.

Carl Rogers believed that every person has his or her own unique

frame of reference.

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