one male and one female, their children from previous marriages as well as their children together.
a married couple and their unmarried children living together
the emotional attitude that recognizes other cultures as equivalent and persistent.
Adaptive Funeral Rite
A funeral altered to suit the needs of a loved one or the trends of the time.
The feeling that one's culture is superior to others.
common traits or patterns found in every culture of mankind.
rites where the body of the deceased is present.
rites where the body of the deceased is not present.
a must behavior of a people enforced by those elected to govern.
A set of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and rules for behavior that are held commonly within a society.
must behavior; rules of behavior which are considered vital to the welfare of the group and accompanied by relatively severe sanctions.
a specific method or procedure used to comply with a folkway, mores, and or law.
a behavior which dictates that one must abstain from certain acts.
behaviors which when violated carry only informal sanctions such as scolding or ridicule.
a social behavior which is considered to be normal and is based on tradition.
Extended (joint) Family
a father, mother, their unmarried children as well as their married sons, their son's wives and their children.
Modified Extended Family
A family unit created by two or more nuclear families or friendships.
those families in which all members of family have a voice in governing matters and decision making.
family units in which the female is the decision maker.
are those families in which the male is the dominant governing force.
Ritual or ceremony
any action performed during a rite which may or may not have symbolic meaning to the participants or observers of the action.
the process by which a person learns the social values of a society.
the change from rural to urban areas.
Humanistic Funeral Rite
a funeral rite that is devoid of any religious connotation.
the disposition of the body of a deceased without any form of funeral rite at that time.
the creation of a system which governs through departments and subdivisions managed by sets of officials following an inflexible routine.
a division of a culture, connected to a larger culture by common traits, while having unique traits of its own.
Traditional Funeral Rite
those funeral rites that follow a prescribed ritual which may be dictated either by religious beliefs or social customs.
is an all inclusive term to describe either a funeral or a memorial service
Primitive Funeral Rite
a rite that can be identified with a pre-literate (before the written word) society.
Non-traditional funeral rite
a funeral rite that deviates from the normal or prescribed circumstances of established custom.
anything to which socially created meaning is given.
Ferry man for the boat on the River Styx.
Shafts created from upright slabs of stone.
Leonardo Davinci (Italian: 1452-1519)
Anatomical Plates - Last Supper
Michaelangelo (Italian: 1475-1564)
Scuptor of "David" - the Cistine Ceiling
Marcello Malpighi (Italian: 1628-1694)
Capillaries (1661) - "Father of Histology"
Dr. William Harvey (English: 1578-1657)
Circulation of blood using a frog
Louis Pasture (1822-1885)
"Father of Bacteriology" - Abiogenesis, fermentation, pasteurization, the germ theory of disease and more.
Dr. Frederich Ruysch (Dutch: 1665-1717)
Father of modern embalming - world
Dr. William Hunter (Scott: 1718-1783)
Embalming medical cadavers
Dr. John Hunter (Scott: 1728-1793)
Adductor "Hunters" Canal
Jean Gannal (French: 1791-1882)
Authored Book on embalming: 1834
Dr. Richard Harlan (American: 1796-1843)
Translated Gannal Book & recommended cresote as disinfectant in embalming
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch: 1632-1723)
Microscope - "Father of Microbiology"
Dr. Thomas H. Holmes (American: 1817-1900)
"Father of Embalming - U.S."
August Wilhelm Von Hofmann (German: 1818-1892)
A. Johnson Dodge
Established a school in Boston (1907)
Joseph H. Clark
Established a school in Cincinnati (1882)
Patented the trocar (1878)
Dr. Auguste Renouard
Author of the "Undertakers Manual" - well known educator of the late 1800's.
Gabriel Clauderus (German: 1600's)
Embalming without evisceration, injection with lye in veins.
John L. Dillon
"Coffin shop - Warehouse" New York State
Robert Frederick & C.A. Trump
"Corpse Cooler - Cooling board"
Introduced the "Ogee"
Ex President U.S. Grant buried in
Style E - State Casket
Use of cloth to cover the more luxurious of burial receptacles.
Crane & Breed
Associated with early mortuary transportation.
James A. Gray
First patent for a metallic coffin
"Life Preserving Coffins"
First documented African-American embalmer.
Torch Lit Parade - became funeral
A special funeral functionary in ancient Rome who summoned participants to a public funeral; the crier like the Town Crier of colonial America.
Goddess of the dead & funerals.
Lead to cult & philosophical way of life
Herodotus (Greek: 484-424)
"Father of History"
God of Embalming
Head or Chief undertaker
God of the underworld and judge of the dead.
God of wine. Lead to a cult philosophy about the afterlife.
American Board of Funeral Service Education
Agency/organization with responsibility to accredit colleges & programs of mortuary science / funeral service education.
Early Roman view of the afterlife which emphasizes the soul as the vital principle.
Human Shaped; some early coffins were desribed as anthropoidal shaped.
Egyptian god of embalming said to be of human form with the head of a jackal.
approximately 1540-1745 were the sole agency permitted to embalm and perform anatomical dissections in the city of London.
forerunner of today's hearse; a hand stretcher on which the uncoffined body was carried to the grave.
belief or practice of draining a quantity of blood to cure illness or disease.
generic term used in America to designate all burial receptacles as new variations of the coffin were being offered.
created in 1800's London by poor people as a means to afford funerals. Costs were shared by others via weekly collections. - forerunners of industrial insurance.
Burial in Woolen Act of 1666
Required that woolen cloth be substituted for linen in the shroud lining of the coffin.
outer enclosure for caskets placed in the grave; originally intended to prevent grave robbery.
jars made of alabaster, limestone, basalt, clay and other materials used by early Egyptians to store viscera of the deceased.
from the French term 'Casse' meaning jewel box or container for something valuable; came into dominant use in patent literature for burial receptacles in 1890's in America.
Casket Manufacturers Association
organization of the casket manufacturers intended to facilitate sharing of information (now known as the casket and Funeral Supply Association).
originated in ancient Rome as excavated cemeteries cut out of soft rock for the tombs of wealthy Christians; later became a place for religious rites to avoid persecution.
raised platform ( with or without a canopy) used for a body to lie in state.
1840's reported on unsanitary conditions in London created by intramural burials, the high cost of funerals and the 1st use of the death certificate.
Circle of necessity
Ancient Egyptian belief that the soul of the deceased would make a 3000 year journey and return to the body.
from the Greek word 'Kofinos'; utilitarian container designed to hold human remains, often anthropoidal in shape.
Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards
organization of licensing agencies in North America; responsible for the national licensing exam known as the National Board Exam; established in St. Louis in 1904.
portable table on which the body was placed while the corpse cooler was in use; later became the embalming table when embalming was done in the home of the deceased.
type of ice chest placed over the torso of the body in order to slow down the process of decomposing prior to the funeral. It was typically a responsibility of the undertaker to provide ice and change the ice when it melted.
Method of disposing of the dead body via fire; first attributed to the ancient Greeks
Cremation Association of North America
founded in 1913, CANA is an international organization of cemeterians, cremationists, funeral directors, industry suppliers and consultants. CANA was originally formed to promote cremation as a modern, safe and hygienic way of dealing with a dead human body.
English custom of Middle ages which lasted until 19th century. person who walked the street calling out the name of the deceased and asking people to pray for the soul of the departed.
master of ceremonies and director of the ancient Roman funeral procession.
disposition of human remains without any rights or ceremonies.
traveling salesmen who went from town to town selling their products. Early embalmers often obtained their products and training in this manner.
a life-sized, waxen recreation (dummy) of the deceased; often used at state funerals.
in Greek mythology, the Greek version of heaven
burial outside the walls of the city; concept introduced during the ancient Roman times.
Fish metallic coffin
patented in 1848 as form-fitting, airtight metallic coffin designed to improve ability to preserve the body, also had a glass plate to allow for viewing the face.
latin for torchlight procession; word 'funeral' is derived from this.
in the middle ages the wake also served as a feast to welcome the pricipal Heir to his new estate; for the ancient Greeks, funeral feasts ended the fast of the bereaved.
Funeral trolley car
a specially designed train car run on a city's trolley line to transport casket and mourners to cemeteries on the outskirts of the city.
provided services of organizing and facilitating funeral details as an occupation; aka undertaker different from furnishing undertaker.
provided supplies and merchandise (i.e. door badges, carriages, etc.) to funeral undertakers who were dealing directly with the public.
the science that deals with the various social groups which we encounter in our world today.
an even that allows those who have something in common with each other to deal with one another in regard to that which they share.
a culturally entrenched pattern of behavior made up of sacred beliefs, emotional feelings accompanying the beliefs, and overt conduct presumably implementing the beliefs and feelings.
apparatus used to inject arterial fluid during the vascular (arterial) phase of the embalming process; relies on gravity to create the pressure required to deliver the fluid (0.43 lbs. of pressure per foot of elevation).
method to apply a continuous flow of embalming solution via manual manipulation of a handheld mechanism.
vehicle specially designed to transport casketed remains
Inviter to funerals
a specialty connected with funerals in colonial America; called personally upon those expected to attend funerals; often a municipal appointment.
Jewish Funeral Directors of America (JFDA)
chartered in 1928 to secure harmony in the profession among Jewish funeral directors and elevate the practice of the profession.
Layers out of the dead
became an occupational specialty in many larger US cities by the end of the l8th C.; predecessor to the undertaker.
Leagues of Prayer
formed in Middle Ages by lay persons to bury the dead and to pray for the souls of the faithful departed.
ancient Viking custom; after deceased was placed in his boat with items necessary for the spirit to maintain the position held on earth, all was cremated and the pyre then covered with Earth.
National Association of Colleges of Mortuary Science
established in 1942 as an organization for privately sponsored schools with the goal of advancement of mortuary education.
National Foundation of Funeral Service
established in 1945 as a non-profit educational trust to advance the education of the profession; currently merged with the NFDA as Funeral Service Foundation.
National Funeral Directors Association (NFDA)
a professional association of funeral directors and embalmers organized in 1882. It is the oldest and largest national funeral service organization in the world. NFDA currently provides is advocacy, education, information, products, programs and services to help members enhance the quality of services to families. (this statement taken from the NFDA constitution)
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association
incorporated in 1938 as National Negro Funeral Directors and Morticians Association; present name adopted 1957; established to represent specific interests of African-American funeral directors.
National Selected Morticians (NSM)
a limited membership funeral service organization formed in 1917 on the basis of one member firm per city; now known as Select Independent Funeral Homes (SIFH).
a naturally occurring white chemical substance that was used in the mummification process as a dehydrating agent.
Literally this means "city of the dead". In Egypt it describes the Valley of the Kings and Queens, areas devoted to burial.
funeral rites or ceremonies
an innovation introduced to square sided caskets in order to reduce the excess space and weight, particularly of metal caskets; characterized by an "S" shaped curvature.
Order of the Golden Rule (OGR)
association established in 1928; committed to quality services and high standards; membership limited to one independently OWNED Funeral. HOME PER community; now known as IOGR (International Order of Golden Rule).
a person who does not acknowledge your God
name of the ancient Roman embalmers. They were either slaves or employees of Libitinarius.
due to fear that the dead might be jealous, the ancient Romans and Greeks hired persons (often women) to shriek, tear their hair and rend garments, etc. in order to insure adequate display of emotion.
Catholic belief that those whose souls are not perfectly cleansed undergo a process of cleansing before they can enter heaven.
term applied to systematic treatment of cases requiring repair of injuries due to disease or trauma. Joel Crandall, a New York City embalmer, is credited with developing such a treatment plan in 1912.
an officer of the church who is in charge of sacred objects
or embalmer to the trade; term originated when some of the original graduates of early embalming courses gave up regular employment with a single firm to provide embalming service to firms which had no trained embalmer.
long hollow tube patented in 1868 by Samuel Rogers of Philadelphia; used by embalmers to inject fluids into cavities and remove excess liquids.
original term applied to those whose occupation included responsibility to organize and facilitate funeral activities; used interchangeably (by some) for the term funeral director.
name given to the vehicle used by undertakers to transport the necessary mortuary paraphernalia to the homes where funerals were typically held. These vehicles sometimes had an appearance similar to a hearse, but were much less ornate.
Undertakers Mutual Protective Association
first formal organization of undertakers; kept a black book of objectionable and delinquent customers to be shared among members only; originated in Philadelphia, January 1864.
University Mortuary Science Education Association
organization of college & university based funeral service programs established in 1961.
originated as an ancient Hebrew practice, family and friends sit with the deceased as a precaution against premature burial; continued as an act of piety in Middle Ages (aka vigil for the dead).