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The principle venous drainage of the thoracic organ is accomplished by way of

the azygos system

From superior to inferior, the major branches branches of the abdominal aorta are

celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric arteries and common iliac arteries

Blood filters through the hepatic sinusoids exists the liver via the hepatic vein. T or F

T

There are no ___ in humans

R & L brachocephelic arteries

Arterial flow to the lower limb comes from the external iliac artery. T or F

T

The three primary branches of the celiac trunk are the common hepatic, left gastric and splenic veins. T or F

F

The lung receives a systemic blood supply by way of

bronchiole arteries

The cardiac electrical conducting system includes all the following except

e.) C & D (fossa ovalis and tendious cords)

To get from the L atrium to the L ventricle, blood flows through

mitral valve

A heart rate of 45 bpm & absence of P wave suggest

damage of SA node

An enlarge R wave suggest

ventricular hyperthrophy

There is/are ____ pulmonary veins emptying into the right atrium

no

The atria contract during

PQ segments

Cardiac muscle does not exhibit tetanus because it has

a long absolute refractory period

The coronary blood vessel are part of ___ circuit of the circulatory system

cardiovascular

The blood remains in the ventricle after the ventricle ejection is

end systolic volume

Drugs that increase the heart rate have a ___ effect

positive chronotropic

The contraction of any heart chamber is called

systole

The pacemaker membrane potential starts about

-50 mV

During the action potential of the cardiocyte the " Plateu" phase represents

calcium entering through through slow Calcium channels

The blood supply of the myocardium is the coronary circulation. T or F

T

There are no valves at the point where venous blood flows into the atria. T or F

T

If all nerves (autonomic nervous system) of the heart rate were severed, the heart would stop beating. T or F

F

Blood leaves the L ventricle through the pulmonary valve. T or F

F

Pulmonary edema results from L ventricle failure. T or F

T

The sarcoplasic reticulum of the cardiocyte is more developed than in the skeletal muscle. T or F

F

The vagus nerve fibers reduce the heart rate. T or F

T

The opening into the pulmonary trunk and aorta are regulated by

semilunar valves

Plasma solutes enter the

fenestrated capillaries

The wall of the following blood vessel has 3 layers (tunica, tunica media & tunica intern) except

capillaries

Caratid sinuses are ___ that respond to change in blood pressure.

baroreceptors

The pericytes are cells that lie external to ___ of ____ capillaries and it is thought that they can ___ and regulate blood flow

endothelium/ continuous / contract

The sinusoids are __ capillaries in the ___

discontinuous/ liver and bone marrow

Which of the following route belong to the circulatory system

all of the above

A person with a systolic blood pressure of 120 mmHg & a diastolic pressure of 80 mmHg would have a pulse pressure of

40mmHg

Which of the following agents have positive chronotropic effect in the heart

E.) a & d (epinephrine, norepinephrine & thyroid hormone)

A blood vessel adapted to withstand a high pulse pressure would be expected to have

an elastic tunica media

In some cases a blood cell may pass through two capillaries beds in a single trip from L ventricle to right atrium. T or F

T

Arteries have a series of valve that ensure a one-way flow of blood. T or F

F

In the baroflex, a drop in arterial blood pressure triggers a corrective vasodilation. of the systemic blood vessels. T or F

F

Metarterioles link arterioles with capillaries. T or F

T

Veins are classified as conducting, distributing and resistance. T or F

F

Capillaries are the primary point of fluid exchange and resistance. T or F

T

Venous sinuses are blood spaces with large lumens, thin walls and no muscle. T or F

T

Blood flows away from the heart in ___ and back to the heart in ____

Arteries/ veins

At rest about 54% of the blood is found in

Veins

The baroreceptors & chemoreceptors are sensory structures located in

Aortic arch

Cardiac output is

e.) A, B & D are correct

The afterload is determined by

arterial blood pressure opposing ventrical ejection

The pericardium fluid is found between

the parietal and visceral membrane

Cardiac muscle share this feature with skeletal muscle

a. cardiac muscle fibers have striation

In people who stand long periods, blood tends to pool in the lower limbsand that may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by

failure of the venous valves

Vasomotion (contraction & dilutions) is associated with the presence of

Smooth muscle in the tunica media

Arteries are sometimes called the ___ vessels of the cardiovascular system

resistance

Atrial depolarization begans during

P wave

___ is the most superficial layer enclosing the heart

parietal pericardium

This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste

urea

Which organ system does not excrete waste

cardiovascular system

Which is not a function of the kidney

d. release waste into the bloodstream

Which of the following is not an organ of the urinary system?

collecting duct

The innermost connecting tissue layer protecting the kidneys and assisting in slaving off infection

fibrouse capsule

A renal pyramid voids urine into

minor calyx

The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occur in the

glomerulus

Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein

D.) interlobular v. > arcuate v. > interlobular v. > renal v.

Which is primarily responsible for generating the salinity gradient of the renal medulla

nephron loop

Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by

proximal convulated tubule

The PCT is not subject to hormonal influence. T or F

F

Sodium is the most abundant solute in the urine. T or F

F

Urea is the most abundant solute in the urine. T or F

T

Micturition depends on contraction of the detrusor muscle. T or F

T

The normal yellow color of the urine is due to the presence of bilirubin in urine. T or F

F

The internal urethral sphincters is not composed of smooth muscle. T or F

F

Somatic motor fibers via the pudential nerve innervate the external urethral sphincter. T or F

T

The distal position of the collecting duct is permeable to NaCl. T or F

F

A glomerulus and glomerular capsule make up one

renal corpuscle

___ is the ability of a nephron to adjust to CFR independently of another hormonal influence

renal autoregulation

A drop in blood pressure causes the kidneys to secrete ___ within ____

renin / juxtaglomerular cells

Atrial natriurectic peptide (ANP)

A. increases salt and water excretion antagonizing aldosterone and ADH

Glomerural Filtration

D. a & b are correct ( is driven by the high blood hydrostatic pressure within the glomerular capillaries / it's rate is typically about 105/mL mm in women

Blood plasma osmolarity is higher than intracellular fluid osmolarity. T or F

F

In a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal. T or F

T

Fluid intake is regulated by hypothalamic receptors called osmoreceptors. T or F

T

The kidney secret ADH in responce to dehydration. T or F

F

Hypovolemia refers to a reduction in total body water while maintaining normal osmolarity. T or F

T

Aldosteron promotes potassium excretion. T or F

T

Hypocalcemia causes muscle weakness, whereas hypercalcemia causes potentially fatal muscle tetanus. T or F

F

Inquiries that rupture a lot of cells tend to elevate the K+concentration of the ECF. T or F

T

PTH hormones promote calcium & phosphate reabsorption by the kidney.
T or F

F

The body compensates for respiratory acidosis by increasing the respiratory rate. T or F

T

A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one. T or F

F

Most body water comes from ___, whereas most body water is lost via ___

drinking / urine

This is the principle cation of the ECF

sodium

Aldosterone receptors are found on cells of

distal convulated tubule

This is the most abundant cation of the ICF

Potassium

These scenerios are related with hyperkalemia except

resting membrane potential is more negative

Tubular secretion of hydrogen is directly linked for

tubular reabsorption of Na+

Which of the following statements is correctly released by the Acid P hormone

e. all of the above

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