Life Science Review - Chapter 3

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SAS 7th Grade Midterm

Atom

smallest unit of matter; substance that cannot be broken down

Element

something made up of only one kind of atom

Compound

substance made up of two or more elements

Mixture

combination of substances in which individual substances retain their own properties; can be separated; Example: Chex Mix

Organic Compounds

contain carbon and hydrogen; usually associated with living things

Inorganic Compounds

made from elements other than carbon

Passive Transport

movement of substances through a cell membrane without input of energy

Diffusion

type of passive transport where molecules from an area where there are relatively more into an area where there are relatively few

Osmosis

diffusion of water through a cell membrane

Active Transport

movement of substances through a cell membrane tat needs input of energy

Endocytosis

taking substances into a cell by surrounding it with the cell membrane; done when the molecule is too big to diffuse

Exocytosis

a vesicle filled with molecules fuses with the cell membrane and the contents are released to the outside

Facilitated Diffusion

Large molucules are diffused through a cell membrane with the help of transport proteins

Photosynthesis

producers use light energy to make sugar that can be used as food; plants do this

Cellular Respiration

chemical reactions break down food molecules in to simple substances and release their stored energy

Fermentation

oxygen lacking cells and single cell organisms release small amounts of energy from sugar molecules and produce wastes like alcohol, carbon dioxide and lactic acid

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