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Although an exact count is not available, it is likely that the human brain has as many as

100 billion neurons.

The central nervous system is lacking in animals that have

bilateral symmetry.

Cephalization, the clustering of neurons and interneurons in the anterior part of the animal, is apparent in

Planaria

An organism that lacks integration centers

will not be able to interpret stimuli.

In the human knee-jerk reflex, as the calf is raised from the vertical toward the horizontal, the muscles of the quadriceps (flexors on the ventral side of the thighs) and the muscles of the hamstring (extensors on the dorsal side of the thighs) are

excited and inhibited, respectively.

The stretch receptors of the sensory neurons in the human knee-jerk reflex are located in the

quadriceps, the flexor muscles on the ventral side of the thighs.

Choose the correct match of glial cell type and function.

astrocytesmetabolize neurotransmitters and modulate synaptic effectiveness

The cerebrospinal fluid is

a filtrate of the blood.

The human knee-jerk reflex requires an intact

spinal cord.

The blood-brain barrier

is formed by tight junctions.

Myelinated neurons are especially abundant in the

white matter in the brain and the white matter in the spinal cord.

An amino acid neurotransmitter that operates at inhibitory synapses in the brain is

gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA

Cerebrospinal fluid can be described as all of the following except

formed from layers of connective tissue.

The divisions of the nervous system that have antagonistic, or opposing, actions are

sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

Preparation for the fight-or-flight response includes activation of the ________ nervous system.

sympathetic

Exercise and emergency reactions include

increased activity in the sympathetic, and decreased activity in the parasympathetic branches.

Increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system leads to

relaxation of the airways in the lungs.

The activation of the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is associated with

resting and digesting.

In a cephalized invertebrate, the system that transmits "efferent" impulses from the anterior ganglion to distal segments is the

peripheral nervous system.

Afferent neuronal systems include the

sensory systems.

Cranial nerves originate in the brain and are thus part of the

central nervous system.

The system that modulates excitation and inhibition of smooth and cardiac muscles of the digestive, cardiovascular, and excretory systems is the

autonomic nervous system.

Calculation, contemplation, and cognition are human activities associated with increased activity in the

cerebrum.

Central coordination of vertebrate biological rhythms in physiology and behavior reside in the

hypothalamus.

The endogenous nature of biological rhythms is based on the observations that animals isolated from light and dark cues

continue to have cycles of approximately 24 hours' duration; some more rapid, some slower.

Bottlenose dolphins breathe air but can sleep in the ocean because

they alternate which half of their brains is asleep and which half is awake.

The limbic system in the central nervous system sustains many vegetative functions in mammals and is closely associated with structures that process cues about

olfaction.

The telencephalon region of the developing brain of a mammal

gives rise to the cerebrum.

Increases and decreases of the heart rate result from changes in the activity of the

medulla oblongata.

The unconscious control of respiration and circulation are associated with the

medulla oblongata

Which of the following structures are correctly paired?

hindbrain and cerebellum

Hormones that are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland are made in the

hypothalamus.

The coordination of groups of skeletal muscles is driven by activity in the

cerebellum

The regulation of body temperature derives from the activity of the

hypothalamus.

The regulatory centers for the respiratory and circulatory systems are found in the

medulla oblongata.

Food and water appetites are under the regulatory influence of the

hypothalamus.

Which processes in animals are regulated by circadian rhythms?

sleep cycles, hormone release, and sex drive

The motor cortex is part of the

cerebrum.

The suprachiasmatic nuclei are found in the

hypothalamus.

In mammals, advanced cognition is usually correlated with a large and very convoluted neocortex, but birds are capable of sophisticated cognition because they have

a pallium with neurons clustered into nuclei.

Wernicke's and Broca's regions of the brain affect

speech.

Which of the following shows a brain structure correctly paired with one of its primary functions?

frontal lobedecision making

If you were writing an essay, the part of your brain that would be actively involved in this task is the

temporal and frontal lobes

The establishment and expression of emotions involves the

frontal lobes and limbic system.

Our understanding of mental illness has been most advanced by discoveries involving

the chemicals involved in brain communications.

Wernicke's area

is active when speech is heard and comprehended.

Failure of an embryonic neuron to establish a synaptic connection to another cell

results in the apoptosis of that neuron.

Short-term memory information processing usually causes changes in the

hippocampus.

Learning a new language during adulthood alters activity in the brain's language processing locations by

altering synaptic effectiveness in these locations.

Forming new long-term memories is strikingly disrupted after damage to the

hippocampus.

Bipolar disorder is similar to schizophrenia in that researchers suspect that both include trouble with the neurotransmitter

dopamine.

Bipolar disorder differs from schizophrenia in that

schizophrenia results in hallucinations.

Imagine you are resting comfortably on a sofa after dinner. This could be described as a state with

decreased activity in the sympathetic nervous system, and increased activity in the parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems.

When Phineas Gage had a metal rod driven into his frontal lobe, or when someone had a frontal lobotomy, they would

have greatly altered emotional responses.

Wakefulness is regulated by the reticular formation, which is present in the

brainstem.

Which of the following structures or regions is incorrectly paired with its function?

limbic system motor control of speech

Patients with damage to Wernicke's area have difficulty

understanding language.

The cerebral cortex plays a major role in all of the following except

circadian rhythm.

After suffering a stroke, a patient can see objects anywhere in front of him but pays attention only to objects in his right field of vision. When asked to describe these objects, he has difficulty judging their size and distance. What part of the brain was likely damaged by the stroke?

the right parietal lobe

Injury localized to the hypothalamus would most likely disrupt

regulation of body temperature.

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