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popular sovereignty

The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government

election of 1848

1. Zachary Taylor-winner (whig)
2. Martin Van Buren (Free Soil Party- made slavery an issue) 3. Lewis Cass-father of popular sovereignty (Democrat). Zachary Taylor became president, died in office, making his vice president Millard Fillmore president.

Free Soil Party

Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.

California Gold Rush

1849 (San Francisco 49ers) Gold discovered in California attracted a rush of people all over the country to San Francisco.

Underground Railroad

A system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada.

Compromise of 1850

Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession.

Fugitive Slave Law

Enacted by Congress, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners.

election of 1852

1. Franklin Pierce (Democrat) - wins
2. Winfield Scott
RESULTS: Whig party splits over nomination Fillmore v. Scott; Antislavery North vs. Southern Whigs that disliked Winfield Scott; Doomed Whig Party - Democratic party united under Pierce. Leads to formation of sectional parties instead of national parties.

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty

Between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to canal across Isthmus of Panama.

Ostend Manifesto

A declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.

Treaty of Wanghia

The first diplomatic agreement between China and America in history, signed on July 3, 1844. Since America signed as a nation interested in trade instead of colonization - gave trading power.

Treaty of Kanagawa

1854 treaty between Japan and the US. Japan agreed to open two ports to American ships.

Gadsden Purchase

Purchasing of land from Mexico that completed the continental United States It provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.

Kansas Nebraska Act

1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.

Uncle Tom's Cabin

Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery - promoted abolition, intensified sectional conflict.

Lecompton Constitution

Pro-slave constitution that got voted in for Kansas after anti-slavery people boycotted the election.

election of 1856

Democrats nominated Buchanan, Republicans nominated Fremont, and Know-Nothings chose Fillmore. Buchanan won due to his support of popular sovereignty.

Dred Scott v. Sandford

1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that living in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional.

panic of 1857

Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads

Tariff of 1857

This new tariff responded to souther pressure. It reduced rates to their lowest since 1812. (James Buchanan)

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate

Freeport doctrine

Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so.

Harpers Ferry

John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged

election of 1860

1. Stephen Douglas (North Democrat) - wins
2. John Breckenridge (South Democrat)
3. Abraham Lincoln (Republican)
4. John Bell (Constitutional Union)
Democratic party was split over slavery - South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.

Constitutional Union Party

In 1860 former Whigs who joined the Know-Nothings, who opposed Lincoln and Douglas, started a new party and nominated John Bell who was opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Lecompton constitution.

Confederate States of America

Confederation formed in 1861 by the Southern states after their secession form the Union., South Carolina, Texas, Mississippi, Florida, Alabam, Georgia, Louisiana in 1861.

Crittenden Compromise

1860 - attempt to prevent Civil War by Senator Crittenden - offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by Republicans.

Lewis Cass

Nominated as President after Polk and he evolved a doctrine of popular sovereignty. He argued that slavery should be kept out of Congress and left to the people.

Harriet Tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North.

Henry Clay

Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state.

Stephen A. Douglas

Senator from Illinois who ran for president against Abraham Lincoln. Wrote the Kansas-Nebreaska Act and the Freeport Doctrine. Pop. sov.

William H. Seward

Governor of New York, United States Senator and the United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.

Millard Filmore

In 1850, President Taylor died suddenly and Vice President Millard Fillmore took the presidency. President Fillmore signed a series of compromises.

Franklin Pierce

Democratic candidate for President in 1852 and the fourteenth president of the US. He made the Gadsden Purchase, which opened the Northwest for settlement, and passed the unpopular Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Commodore Perry

The Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.

Jefferson Davis

American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865.

Henry Ward Beecher

New York minister sent Beecher's Bibles - boxes of guns with bibles packed around them so you couldn't see the guns - to Kansas. His sister's name was Harriet.

James Buchanan

Nominated in 1856, from PA, 15th president of the US (1857-1861)

Charles Sumner

Radical Republican against the slave power who insults Andrew Butler and subsequently gets caned by Preston Brooks.

Preston Brooks

Congressman from South Carolina, notorious for brutally assaulting senator Charles Sumner on the floor of the United States Senate.

Dred Scott

American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the Missouri Compromise.

Roger B. Taney

The fifth Chief Justice - In the Dred Scott decision (1857) he ruled that slaves and their descendants had no rights as citizens.

Abraham Lincoln

Was President of the United States, opposed the spread of slavery, issued the Emancipation Proclamation, was determined to preserve the Union, by force if necessary, believed the United States was one nation, not a collection of independent states, and wrote the Gettysburg Address that said the Civil War was to preserve a government "of the people, by the people, and for the people.

John Brown

Abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory

John Breckinridge

The South's pro-slavery Democratic candidate in the election of 1860. Completed the split of the Democratic Party by being nominated.

John J. Crittenden

Kentucky senator - attempted to save the Union by reconciling differences between northern and southern states in the Senate proposal known as Crittenden's Compromise.

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