7th Grade Life Science Ch 5 Genetics

27 terms by dmrjv

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alleles

the different forms of a trait that a gene may have

dominant

factor that dominates, or covers up, another factor

genetics

the study of how traits are inherited through the interactions of alleles

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

heredity

passing of traits from parent to offspring

heterozygous

an organism that has two different alleles for a trait

homozygous

an organism with two alleles that are the same for a trait

hybrid

a plant that receives different genetic information for a trait from each parent

phenotype

the way an organism looks and behaves as a result of its genotype

Punnett square

a tool used to predict the number of times certain traits will occur

recessive

factor that disappears if a dominant trait is present

incomplete dominance

the offspring of two homozygous parents show an intermediate phenotype

polygenic

a group of gene pairs act together to produce a trait

sex-linked gene

an allele inherited on a sex chromosome

genetic engineering

biological and chemical methods to change the arrangement of DNA that makes up a gene

how alleles and genes are related

alleles are part of a gene; genes are on chromosomes

how do alleles separate during meiosis

alleles for each trait also separate into different sex cells. Every sex cell has 1 allele for each trait

what is the difference between genetics and heredity

heredity is the passing of traits from parents to offspring. Genetics is the study of heredity

what is a hybrid

a plant that receives different genetic information for a trait from each parent

how do we represent heterozygous genotypes, homozygous genotypes

Tt, TT

the three principles of heredity and am I able to write them down p. 132, table 2

1. traits are controlled by alleles on chromosomes
2. an allele's effect is dominant or recessive
3. when a pair of chromosomes separates during meiosis, the different allels for a trait move into separate sex cells

what is a mutation, what can cause it

changes or errors in the DNA when it is being copies during cell division; certain chemicals, Xrays, and radioactive materials can cause mutations

what is a recessive genetic disorder, how can it be inherited, what is an example, how does it occur

a genetic disorder caused by recessive genes
each parent passes a recessive allele to the child
cystic fibrosis
they occur when both parents have a recessive allele responsible for the disorder

what is a sex-linked disorder, how can it be inherited, what is an example, how does it occur

a condition that results from inheriting sex-linked genes; females when each X chromosomes has the recessive gene; male when his X chromosome has the recessive allele; color blindness

how is gender determined what do the chromosomes for a male look like, for a female

by the sperm passing either an X or a Y to the egg; female = XX male = XY

what is gene therapy, what particles are used, what does it do

gene transfer - first normal DNA or RNA is replaced in a virus. Then the virus delivers the normal DNA or RNA to target cells. It might help genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis

how are plants genetically engineered, why is it helpful

find genes that produce desired traits in one plant and then insert those genes into a different plant. Genetically engineered tomotoes can be picked green then they continue to ripen so when you buy them at the stor

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