# AP Chem Final Exam Unit 2

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### Ideal Gas law

PV=nRT (changes in any of the variables can be tracked using : (PV=nRT [final]/ PV=nRT [initial])

### Boyle's Law

Inverse relationship between pressure and volume

### Charles's Law

Direct relationship between volume and temperature

Direct relationship between volume and moles

### 1 atm and 273K

Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)

### Dalton's law of partial pressure

The total pressure is equal to the sum of all the individual pressures (P total = P₁ + P₂ + P₃ ...)

### 1. Gases are made up of small microscopic particles. 2. Particles are in constant motion and the collision with the container wall is the cause for the pressure exerted (elastic). 3. Particles are assumed to exert no force on each other (neither attract nor repel each other). 4. The average kinetic energy is assumed to be directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the gas.

The kinetic Molecular Theory of a Gas states that an ideal gas has the following properties:

### Effusion

The passage of a gas through a tiny hole into an evacuated chamber (like a perfume).

### Rate of effusion

Formula is: rate of effusion for gas 1/rate of effusion for gas 2 = √M₂/√M₁. (Note: a lighter, smaller, less polar gas effuses quicker than a heavier gas).

### Diffusion

The opposite of effusion. Example is a smell that smells throughout the room, people in front row smell it first and then it moves further back and the rows further back start to smell it.

Example: