Anatomy & physiology chapter 1

65 terms by Richie21

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Feeling for swollen lymph nodes is an example of auscultation.

False

We can see through bones with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

True

Histology is the study of structures that can be observed without a magnifying lens.

False

Cells were first named by microscopist Robert Hooke.

True

All functions of the body can be interpreted as the effects of cellular activity.

True

The hypothetico-deductive method is common in physiology, whereas the inductive method is common in anatomy.

True

An individual scientific fact has more information than a theory.

False

Evolutionary (darwinian) medicine traces some of our diseases to our evolutionary past.

True

The terms development and evolution have the same meaning in physiology.

False

Organs are made of tissues.

True

A molecule of water is more complex than a mitochondrion (organelle).

False

Homeostasis and occupying space are both unique characteristics of living things.

False

Positive feedback helps to restore normal function when one of the body's physiological variables gets out of balance.

False

Negative feedback is a self-amplifying chain of events that tend to produce rapid change in the body

False

Anatomists over the world adhere to a lexicon of standard international terms, which stipulates both Latin names and accepted English equivalents.

True

Feeling structures with your fingertips is called _________, whereas tapping on the body and listening for sounds of abnormalities is called ____________

palpation; percussion.

___________________ was the first to publish accurate drawings of the body, and is thus regarded as "the father of modern anatomy."

Vesalius

________________ wrote the most influential medical textbook of the ancient era.

Galen

Which of these is the best imaging technique for routinely examining the anatomical development of a fetus?

sonography

The terms physics, physiology, and physician come from a term that ___ proposed to distinguish natural causes from supernatural causes.

Aristotle

The process of using numerous observations to develop general principles and predictions about a specific subject is called

inductive method

Most people think that ulcers are caused by psychological stress. It was discovered that an acid-resistant bacterium, Heliobacter pylori, lives in the lining of the stomach. If these bacteria cause ulcers, then treatment with an antibiotic should reduce ulcers. This line of investigation is an example of

hypothetico-deductive reasoning

An educated speculation or a possible answer to a question is called

hypothesis.

The use of controls and statistical testing are two aspects of experimental design that help to ensure

objective and reliable results.

______________ is a process that submits a scientist's ideas to the critical judgment of other specialists in the field before the research is funded or published.

Peer review

Which of the following would contain the greatest amount of information that scientists consider to be true to the best of their knowledge?

theory

The study of structure and function of cells is called

cytology

_______ established a code of ethics for physicians. He is considered the "father of medicine".

Hippocrates

A new drug apparently increases short-term memory. Students were divided randomly into two groups at the beginning of the semester. One group was given the memory pill once a day for the semester, and the other group was given a same-looking pill, but it was just sugar. The sugar pill is termed a(n)

Placebo

Two groups of people were tested to determine whether garlic lowers blood cholesterol levels. One group was given 800 mg of garlic powder daily for four months and exhibited an average 12% reduction in the blood cholesterol. The other group was not given any garlic and after four months averaged a 3% reduction in cholesterol. The group that was not given the garlic was the

control group.

A change in the genetic composition of a population over time is called

evolution.

The constant appearance of new strains of influenza virus is an example of

evolution

The principal theory of how evolution works is called

natural selection

Which of the following was an adaptation evolved in connection with human upright walking?

spinal and pelvic anatomy

Stereoscopic vision provides

depth perception

Humans are born before their nervous system have matured, which is traceable to A. their inability to regulate body temperature.

skeletal adaptations to bipedalism.

Our own species is called

Homo sapiens

Most primates are ________________, meaning they live in trees

arboreal

An _______________ is composed of two or more tissues types, whereas ____________ are microscopic structures in a cell

organ, organelles

This option lists levels of human structure from the most complex to the simplest.

organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle

41. This option lists examples of body's structures from the simplest to the most complex

protein, mitochondrion, adipocyte (fat cell), connective tissue, stomach

...42. A(n) _____________ is a group of similar cells in a discrete region of an organ performing a specific function.

tissue

Taking apart a clock to see how it works is similar to ____________ thinking about human physiology. A. comparative

reductionist

____________ approaches understanding of the human body by studying interactions of its parts. A. naturalism.

vitalism

____________ is the view that not everything about an organism can be understood or predicted from the knowledge of its components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts

Reductionism

The fact that most of us have five lumbar vertebrae, but some people have six and some have four is an example of ____________ variation among organisms.

anatomical

________________ are the simplest body's structures considered alive.

cells

All of the following are human organ systems except

epidermal.

All of the following are organs except

digestive system

Metabolism is the sum of

anabolism and catabolism

We live in an ever-changing environment outside of our body, yet our internal conditions remain relatively stable. This is called

homeostasis

When you exercise you generate excess heat and your body temperature rises. Blood vessels dilate in the skin, warm blood flows closer to the body surface, and you lose heat. This exemplifies

negative feedback

When a woman is giving birth, the head of the baby pushes against her cervix and stimulates release of the hormone oxytocin. Oxytocin travels in the blood and stimulates the uterus to contract. Labor contractions become more and more intense until the baby is expelled. This is an example of

positive feedback

Which of the following is most likely to cause disease?

positive feedback

Blood glucose concentration rises after a meal and stimulates release of the hormone insulin. Insulin travels in the blood and stimulates body cells to uptake glucose from the bloodstream. This reduces blood glucose concentration. This is an example of

negative feedback

The ____________ is defined as a healthy male 22 years old, weighing 70 kg (154 lb), under no environmental stress, and consuming 2,800 kilocalories (kcal) per day; whereas the ________ is the same except for a weight of 58 kg (128 lb) and an intake of 2,000 kcal/day.

reference man, reference woman

The change in size of the bone marrow (where blood cells are produced) as an infant matures is an example of __________, whereas the transformation of blood stem cells into white blood cells is an example of __________________

growth, differentiation

Three common components of a feedback loop are

a receptor, an integrating (control) center, and an effector

Negative feedback loops are

homeostatic.

The prefix hypo- means _______________, whereas hyper- means _____________.

below, above

The term fallopian tube (uterine tube) is an example of

an eponym

Hypercalcemia means

elevated calcium levels in blood

The plural of axilla (armpit) is ____________ whereas the plural of appendix is ___________.

axillae; appendices.

The plural of villus (hair) is ____________ whereas the plural of diagnosis is ____________

villi, diagnoses.

The lexicon of standard international anatomical terms

is called Terminologia Anatomica (TA)

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set