Intro Psych Final Exam Review Part 1

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Psychology

A therapist who takes an eclectic approach is one who

uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic approaches.

The removal of a woman's ovaries may contribute to decreasing sexual interest because her natural ________ level is _____.

testosterone; lowered

Contemporary psychology is best defined as the science of

behavior and mental process.

Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances?

Replication

Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of

role-playing on attitudes

Which of the following best explains why, for those who are not poor, more money buys little more than a temporary surge of happiness?

the adaptation-level phenomenon

Studies by Loftus and Palmer, in which people were quizzed about a film of an accident, indicate that

people's recall may easily be affected by misleading information.

Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to

perceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe.

People often overestimate the clarity of their intentions in their e-mails because they underestimate the importance of _______ in communication.

tones of voice

The two-factor theory of emotions places more emphasis on the importance of ______ than does the James-Lange theory.

cognitive activity

A psychologist who conducts experiments solely intended to build psychology's knowledge base is engaged in

basic research.

Unlike in men, a high sex drive in women is likely to be associated with an increased same-sex attraction as well as an increased opposite-sex attraction. This best illustrates women's greater

erotic plasticity.

Tardive dyskinesia is often associated with long-term use of drugs that occupy certain ______ receptor sites.

dopamine

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates

overconfidence.

An integrative therapy that aims to modify both self-defeating thinking and maladaptive actions is known as

cognitive-behavior therapy.

The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it

may be unrepresentative of what is generally true.

Auditory stimulation is first processed in the ______ lobes.

temporal

Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely to

cope effectively with stress.

Which of the following is an example of imprinting?

A duckling demonstrates attachment to a bouncing ball.

A fraternity brother rationalizes the fact that he spends very little time studying by saying that he "doesn't want to peak too soon and have the test material become stale." You tell him that

(all answers)
a. he is probably overestimating his knowledge of the material.
b. if he devotes extra time to studying, his retention of the material will be improved.
c. the more often students review material, the better their exam scores.

The volley principle is most directly relevant to our perception of

pitch

Which theory best explains how we perceive low-pitched sounds?

frequency theory

A hypothesis is a (n)

testable prediction that gives direction to research.

Relative deprivation referes to the tendency for our personal happiness to be heavily influenced by

others' attainments.

In classical conditioning therapies, maladaptive symptoms are usually considered to be

conditioned responses.

A psychotherapist suggests that Theresa can effectively reduce the anger she feels towards her ex-boyfriend by tearing pictures of him into little pieces. This therapeutic technique is based on the

catharsis hypothesis.

Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to

deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers.

mental health therapies that involve prescribed drugs or other procedures that act directly on a patient's nervous system are

biomedical therapies.

In the 1950's, Hans Eysenck challenged the effectiveness of psychotherapy because it appeared to be

no more beneficial than no treatment at all.

If a gender-neutral face is made to look angry, most people perceive it as _____. If asked to imagine an angry face, most identify this face as ______.

male; male.

A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is a natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, enclosed space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient's fear is best understood in terms of

the two-factor theory.

En route to the visual cortex, neural impulses from the retina are first relayed to the

thalamus.

In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the _______ variable.

dependent

The case study is a research method in which

a single individual is studied in great depth.

In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting, infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to

use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings.

According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion _______ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory we experience emotion _____ we become physiologically aroused.

after; at the same time as

We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are

followed by reinforcement.

Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as

naturalistic observation.

Systematic desensitization involves

associating a pleasant relaxed state with anxiety-arousing stimuli.

Having observed participants in his simulated prison study, Philip Zimbardo offered an explanation for the destructive behavior of the US military guards in Iraq's Abu Ghraib Prison. Zimbaro's explanation best exemplified

a situational attribution.

Associating a conditioned stimulus with a new neutral stimulus can create a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. This best illustrates

higher-order conditioning.

Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of

selective attention.

Cognitive therapists would be most likely to encourage depressed clients to

stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.

In Pavolv's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was the

presentation of food in the dog's mouth.

Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?

The experimental treatment is absent.

According to evolutionary psychology, men are drawn sexually to women who seem _____, while woman are attracted to men who seem _____.

youthful and fertile; mature and affluent.

When her son fails to arrive home as expected, Elena fears he has been in an accident. Both her heart and respiration rate remain elevated until she sees him come safely through the door. Her body soon returns to normal due to the action of her _______ nervous system.

parasympathetic

Mr Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to

preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness.

Following the 9/11 terrorist attack on New York, people across the country donated their time and money to assist the devastated community. This behavior best illustrates

altruism.

After a small section of his basilar membrane was damaged, Jason experienced a noticeable loss of hearing for high-pitched sounds only. Jason's hearing loss is best explained by the _____ theory.

place

Harlow observed that most monkeys raised in total isolation

were incapable of mating upon reaching sexual maturity.

Darley and Latané observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The students' failure to help is best explained in terms of

a diffusion of responsibility.

The bystander effect refers to the dendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the

emergency is being observed by a number of other people.

An inert substance that may be administered instead of a drug to see if it produces any of the same effects as the drug is called a

placebo.

Subjective well-being refers to

self-perceived happiness.

In a well-known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of

observational learning.

When placed in strange situations without their artificial mothers, the Harlows' infant monkeys demonstrated signs of

insecure attachment.

Deep-brain stimulation has been reported to provide relief from

depression.

If you mimic another person's facial expression of emotino, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of

the James-Lange theory.

The arousal that lingers after an intense argument may intensify sexual passion. This best illustrates

the spillover effect.

Some scientific evidence makes a preliminary link between homosexuality and

atypical prenatal hormones.

In Pavlov's studies of classical conditioning of a dog's salivary responses, spontaneous recovery occurred

when the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period.

Participants in Milgram's obedience experiments were informed that they were involved in a study of

learning.

One group of ocean voyagers is given a new but untested pill for seasickness and a second group is given an inactive pill. Neither the voyagers nor the experimental researchers know which group has received which pill. The investigators are making use of

the double-blind technique.

WHich of the following are most clearly activated both by picking up a spoon and simply watching another person pick up a spoon?

Mirror neurons.

The sense of smell is know as

olfaction

Theories are defined as

principles that help to organized observations and predict behaviors or events.

Being randomly assigned to the experimental group in a research project involves being assigned

to that group by chance.

Systematic desensitization is a form of ______, which is a type of ______.

counterconditioning; behavior therapy.

Political officials who have no doubt that their own economic and military predictions will come true most clearly demonstrates

overconfidence.

The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the

Cannon-Bard theory.

Research has found that an animal's sexual orientation can be altered by

manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions.

Clinical decision making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and an understanding of patient characteristics best illustrates

evidence-based practice.

Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of

a hypothesis.

To assess the influence of self-esteem on interpersonal attraction, researchers either insulted or complimented students about their physical appearance just before they went on a blind date. In this research, the dependent variable was

interpersonal attraction.

Well-done surveys measure attitudes in a representative subset, or ______, of an entire group, or _____.

random sample; population.

Professor Assad suggested that a cautious attitude toward sexual encounters has proven to be more reproductively advantageous to women than to men because the birth process is time-consuming. This suggestion best illustrates the logic of a(n) ________ theory of sexual behavior.

evolutionary

After receiving an unexpected A on his psychology test, Jordan was easily persuaded to baby-sit his little sister while his parents went out for dinner. This best illustrates the

feel-good, do-good phenomenon.

The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to

exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.

A psychologist studies the play behavior of young children by watching groups during recess at school. Which type of research is being used?

naturalistic observation

Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of observers how fast two cars had been going in a filmed traffic accident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word "smashed" in relation to the accident later recalled

broken glass at the scene of the accident.

According to social exchange theory, altruistic behavior is guided by

calculations of costs and benefits.

In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that

the participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying.

In promoting observational learning, the most effective models are those we perceive as

having any of these characteristics:
a.similar to ourselves
b.respected and admired
c.successful

It has been suggested that baring the teeth is universally associated with the expression of anger because this ability to convey threats has helped humans to survive. This suggestion best illustrates the

evolutionary perspective.

An expectation that people will help those who depend on them is known as

the social-responsibility norm.

Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of

behavior therapy.

Selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors are frequently prescribed for treatment of

depression.

The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called

cognitive dissonance.

Two classmates ask you to spend a couple of hours helping them prepare for a chemistry test. According to social exchange theory, you would most likely to help them if

you know you would feel terribly guilty for refusing their request.

Watson and Rayner's study of Little Albert demonstrated how specific fears

may be produced through classical conditioning.

Which of the following techniques have have behavior therapists used to help people overcome a fear of flying?

Virtual reality exposure therapy.

Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy." These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of

word effects.

Mirror neurons are found in the brain's _______ and are believed to be the neural basis for ______.

frontal lobe; observational learning.

Many of the experimental participants who were asked how fast two cars in a filmed traffic accident were going when they smashed into each other subsequently recalled seeing broken glass as the scene of the accident. This experiment best illustrated

the misinformation effect.

Extinction occurs when a _____ is no longer paired with a _____.

CS; US.

Sexual orientation refers to

a person's enduring sexual attraction towards members of a particular gender.

After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates

learned helplessness.

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