Developmental Psychology

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Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of nature and nurture in our development?

The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture, in turn, affects genes.

What is a "critical period" of development?

When certain things must occur for normal development.

Dora, who is 75 years old, disagrees completely with her teenage granddaughter about the proper role of women. Their arguments are most likely to arise from differences in which context?

Historical.

An individual's socioeconomic status includes

Level of education.

The values, assumptions, customs, clothing, technologies, and art that a group of people has developed over the years as a design are referred to as their

Culture.

When her grandfather stuck his tongue out at her, two-day-old Leila stuck her tongue out in return. How might scientists explain her behavior?

Mirror neurons were activated.

Social learning theory emphasizes

Observation and imitation.

Piaget's view of cognitive development includes the idea that

Cognitive development follows age-related changes in understanding.

When we adjust our old ways of thinking in order to include new information, Piaget calls this process

Accommodation.

A manner of studying human development that stresses the fluctuations and transitions that occur constantly throughout life is referred to as the

Dynamic-systems theory.

Which of the following is the best definition of "dependent variable"?

It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental vehicle.

A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers, and then he observed their aggression levels. In this study, the independent variable was the

Viewing a violent film.

A researcher was interested in finding out whether children's ability to exhibit self-control when offered unhealthy food changed with age. He asked parents of three-year-old, six-year-old, and nine-year-old children to bring their children into the laboratory, where they were allowed to eat as much candy, cookies, and cake as they wanted. The researcher then compared the amount of food eaten by children of the three different ages. This is an example of

Cross-sectional research.

A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10, 20, 30, and 40 years old, in conducting

Longitudinal research.

If you find a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that

High attendance and high grades tend to occur together.

Which of the following would be an example of qualitative data collection?

Interviewing of all the siblings of a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions.

An organism's entire genetic inheritance is referred to as its

Genotype.

Which of the following statements is true regarding monozygotic twins?

Even though they begin with identical genotypes, their phenotypes may differ at birth

Dyzogtic twins are produced when

Two ova are fertilized by two different sperm at roughly the same time.

Most traits are polygenic, meaning that they are

It is smaller than the other genes.

A gene is recessive when

Its influence can be hidden by a more powerful gene.

The five characteristics that are evaluated in the Apgar are

Heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes.

Which of the following terms describes the level at which a certain teratogen becomes harmful?

Threshold effect.

If your mom's family members all have very dark skin and your dad's family members all have very light skins, your skin color may be somewhere in between. Each parent's genes contributed to a(n) ____________ fashion

Additive.

Imagine that eye color is determined by only one pair of genes and that brown eyes are dominant over blue eyes. If you are blue-eyed and both your parents are brown-eyes, you know that

Both your parents are carriers for blue eyes.

Low birth-weight is defined internationally as a body weight of less than

5 1/2 pounds.

Bill is a genetic counselor. In his position, he has an ethical obligation to

Give clients factual information about their tests and risks that a child may have a genetic disorder.

Most of us are aware of some of the characteristics of persons with Down Syndrome (slanted eyes, thick tongue, round face), but fewer people are aware of the fact that they

Seem to age more quickly, often develop dementias, are more prone to some cancers.

Which of the following factors related to sex and gender is most associated with nurture?

Gender role.

Marsha and Jim have twins, a boy and a girl. The twins are

Dizygotic.

Which of the following is the most common risk factor for low-birth weight?

Teen-pregnancy

What may be predisposing factors of postpartum depression?

Coping with a newborn with sleep problems, changing hormones, pre-pregnancy depression.

Research on SIDS has shown that babies should be

Put to sleep on their backs.

Salma is a 10-month-old who is being tested on the visual cliff. We would expect her to

Refuse to cross over the visual cliff.

By 10 months of age, Alan has a vocabulary of a dozen words. B.F. Skinner would have attributed Alan's rapid speech development mainly to his

Parents' talking to him frequently.

Piaget believed children begin to develop cognitively at

Birth.

The language acquisition device (LAD) was proposed by Chomsky to explain

The universal inborn ability to learn language.

Newborns prefer

Speech over most other sounds.

The sense that is least developed at birth is

Vision

Studies comparing breast-feeding with bottle-feeding show that

Breast-fed babies have fewer allergies and stomachaches.

Using the word more to mean "I want another cookie" is a

Holophrase.

A baby sticks out its tongue and another person laughs. The baby joins in the laughter and deliberately sticks out its tongue again. Piaget would call this

Secondary circular reactions.

If you were to see a man from the nation of Fiji, but had never seen one before, you would be able to recognize him as a human being. This cognitive process is

Assimiliation.

Piaget believed that object permanence developed at about 8 months of age. Which of the following is true

Piaget was incorrect about because his methods confused an infants' motor abilities with their cognitive abilities and object permanence occurs earlier.

Human Milk Banks in the U.S. provide breast milk for infants primarily for which of the following

For infants who cannot tolerate formula.

Ann-Marie started walking when she was 10 months old; Cynthia is just beginning to take steps by herself at 13 months. Which of the following is most likely?

Both girls are developing normally.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, breastfeeding is not as popular as it should be able to

Lack of societal support, physician apathy and misinformation, and marketing by formula companies.

A toddler experimentally varies the way she handles a ball—first squeezing it, then throwing it--in order to learn what effect each variation has. This child is demonstrating

Tertiary circular reactions.

"Constitutionally based individual differences in emotions, activity, and self-control" would be a useful and appropriate definition of

Temperament.

A parent and a toddler meet someone the toddler does not know but who makes the parent nervous. The toddler will probably

Act anxious.

Which of the following is one of the four categories of temperament suggested by the New York Longitudinal Study?

Slow to warm up.

Basically, the Strange Situation measures how a child

Responds to separations and reunions with a caregiver.

Victor and Rosa want to enhance their synchrony with their 6-month-old daughter. They can best do this by

Imitating her vocal and facial expressions.

The new emotions that appear toward the end of the second year are

pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt.

According to Erikson's theory, which of the following is true of most toddlers?

They want to gain a sense of autonomy, or control, over their own bodies.

When parents find a way to provide a smooth interaction between their child's temperament and his social, family, and school life, they have achieved

Goodness of fit.

If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may then touch her nose. This shows that the child has some

Self-awareness.

When Caitlin falls and hurts herself, she runs to her mother crying. Rather than comforting Caitlin, her mother offers her a toy to distract her. Her mother is a

Distant parent.

Typically, stranger wariness is first noticeable at

9 months.

"Proximity-seeking" and "contact-maintaining" behaviors are displays of

Attachment.

Concerning temperament and personality, research has found that

Temperament is linked to biological patterns that appear in infancy.

At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recently developed emotional reaction is likely to be

A social smile.

Ruby does not notice when her mother leaves the day care center and ignores her mother when she returns. Ruby's behavior is characteristic of

Insecure-avoidant attachment.

With respecting to toilet training, research indicates that

Starting training before 18mo is often related to slower completion.

According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child

Interact with a mentor to accomplish a task.

Which of the following is the best way to ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake?

Eat well balanced meals with a variety of foods.

Mrs. Suttman helps her 2-year-old daughter count blocks and measure teaspoons of cocoa. Mrs. Suttman is providing

Scaffolding.

Secondary prevention involves

Responding to the first warning signs of a problem.

The most common cause(s) of death of children worldwide is(are)

Accidents.

The formation of overregulation in a child's speech patterns indicates

He or she is able to apply grammatical rules, although incorrectly, to her vocalizations.

A magician's stock and trade is getting the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he is manipulating another. This is most easy with preoperational children, as they are easily fooled with their tendency to

Demonstrate centration.

Four-year-old Jon is sitting at the lunch counter next to his sister Erin. They are having hotdogs for lunch. Mom cuts Jon's hotdog into five pieces and Erin's into six pieces. Jon protests because "Erin has more than me!" Which of the following abilities does Jon not yet demonstrate?

Conservation.

Myelination

Speeds up the transmission of neural impulses.

Krista understands that 4 + 6 = 10 but does not understand that 10 - 6 = 4. She is displaying

Irreversibility.

A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is called

Intuitive psychology.

Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it to

Social activities guided by others.

Ryan suffered a brain injury as a result of an automobile accident. His abilities to speak and to process language were severely affected. His injury was to the

Left side of the brain.

An experimenter lines up pairs of checkers into two identical rows. Then the experimenter elongates one of the rows by spacing the checkers farther apart. This is a classic test of

Conservation of number.

Of the following types of child maltreatment, which is the most common?

Neglect.

Risk factors for child maltreatment would include

Extreme poverty, a home that contains general domestic violence, and social isolation.

__________ is generally considered a more mature emotion than ___________ because the former one comes from within the individual and demonstrates self-awareness

Guilt;shame.

Five-year-old Ethan, a foster child, sometimes had uncontrollable temper tantrums that lasted much longer than those of his classmates in his kindergarten class. How might his behavior be explained?

Early stress may have affected his ability to regulate his emotions.

Billy and Rodney are both building toys out of Legos, but they are sitting apart, each with their own set of blocks. What type of play is this?

Parallel play.

A parenting style characterized by high parent-to-child communication, low warmth, and high expectations of maturity is

Authoritarian.

Janelle's usual bedtime is 8:30 p.m., and her parents strictly enforce this rule. One evening, Janelle is watching an educational program on the Discovery Channel, which ends at 9 p.m. She asks her parents if she can stay up this one night and watch the end of the program. Her parents agree to let her stay up as long as she gets up in time for school in the morning. Which type of parenting style are Janelle's parents?

Authoritative.

The child most likely to have permissive parents is

Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.

Four-year-old Bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. Most likely, as he grows older

He will become aggressive himself.

Three girls start a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier

Relational aggression.

Karen is trying to determine how long her 4-year-old daughter should sit in time-out for deliberately pouring her juice on the floor. If she uses the suggested estimate, her daughter will be in time-out for

4 minutes

According to your text, _____________ differences are biological and ____________ difference are culturally prescribed

Sex;gender.

Freud believed that preschool boys

Secretly want to replace their fathers.

Identify the scenario that best demonstrates learning theories

Christine wears a dress, and both her parents tell her how pretty she looks.

Theorists who support a focus on children's understanding as opposed to observable behavior are

Cognitive theorists

The reason why watching violence on TV leads to aggression in children is

That they are disinhibited from being aggressive.

Physical punishment

Tends to suppress behavior in the short term.

To make punishment more effective

Make it consistent, make it age appropriate, and punish immediately after the infraction if possible.

When capable of concrete operational thought, children

Can apply their reasoning to real situations.

The ability to understand the connection between one fact and another, even though it is not stated, is called

Transitive inference.

The process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence enough times to no longer require much conscious thought is called

Automatization.

As José walked to school with Tony, he saw Tony's notebook in his backpack. José rushed back into his house to retrieve his own notebook containing his homework. José's sensation on seeing Tony's notebook became a perception, which then triggered José's

Working memory.

Which of the following abilities is necessary in order for children to be aware of what they already know and what they still need to learn?

Metacognition.

Although the test you are now taking measures many things, it is supposed to be a test of

Achievement.

Because of better health, smaller families, and more schooling, some nations have exhibited substantial increases in IQ scores. This phenomenon is called

The Flynn Effect.

A distinct type of intelligence described by Robert Sternberg is

Practical.

Howard Gardner believes that

Musical ability is a type of intelligence.

David is excitable, impulsive, and very active in addition to having difficulty concentrating. He might have

ADHD.

In early childhood, autistic children have difficulty

With communication.

The most devastating problem for autistic individuals as they grow up is their lack of

Social understanding.

Piaget has provided us with the ____________ of children's concepts, whereas Vygotsky has provided us with the ______________.

Individual context; social context.

Identify the statement that demonstrates the principle of reversibility

Addition can be used to undo subtraction.

Obesity in children is related to

TV watching, lower SES, and an inactive lifestyle.

Treatments for obesity in children

Should emphasize increased activity.

Andrea is a typical 11-year-old whose growing self-consciousness and self-criticism drive her to frequently compare herself with her peers. If Andrea is like most children, such comparisons will

Reduce her self-esteem.

The child who weathers severe family problems, even abuse, and somehow remains unscathed in the process is called

Resilient.

Joshua and Jessica are brother and sister who live with their biological parents. They live with their

Nuclear family.

Of the following children, who is at greatest risk in terms of school performance and success as an adult?

Richard, who is being raised by his single mom.

Two factors that universally interfere with family function in every nation are

Low income and high conflict.

The family-stress model, as applied to economic conditions, illustrates that

The parents' reaction to poverty is the crucial factor in family stress

When children are able to understand social interactions, including the causes and consequences of behavior, they have acquired a measure of

Social cognition.

The best example of an aggressive-rejected child is

Veru, who is disliked by most children because she is so uncooperative.

Girls who bully typically

Mock and ridicule their victim.

Kohlberg measured morality by

Analyzing how people reason about what is right and wrong

Carla is usually good because she is afraid that she will be punished if she isn't. Carla is in which level of Kohlberg's view of moral development?

Pre-conventional.

Developing self-respect, nurturing friendships with peers, and encouraging learning are three of the

Functions of a family.

During the middle childhood, self-esteem typically

Decreases.

Liv is an extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a(n)

Withdrawn-rejected child.

A Florida man killed a doctor who performed abortions. The man knew this was a crime, and he knew he could be convicted of murder. He said stopping abortion was worth dying for. This is an example of

Post-conventional morality.

Which of the following factors is related to resilience in at-risk children

Self-efficacy, having positive role models outside the family, and structures and rules within the household.

For males, the hormone that produces most sexual changes is

Testosterone.

Which of the following adolescents will be most likely to experience menarche first?

Rebecca, who is of African descent.

What effect does malnutrition have on puberty?

It tends to delay the onset of puberty.

Ellie is 10 years old and well into puberty. She will probably experience

Teasing and name-calling from her classmates.

Because of the obsession with body image during adolescence, girls may ingest ________and boys may take____________

Diet pills;steroids.

Josephina is obsessed with her weight, yet she will eat a whole package of Oreos in one sitting. Afterwards she will go into the bathroom and make herself vomit. Josephina is of normal weight, but she constantly has heartburn. Josephina most likely suffers from

Bulimia nervosa.

Which of the following behaviors seems to reduce the risk of an adolescent developing at eating disorder?

The family sharing meals together.

Secondary sex characteristics are those characteristics that

Are not directly related to reproduction.

Which of the following is the most frequently reported STI?

Chlamydia.

A characteristic of adolescent egocentrism is

The belief that one's emotional experiences are misunderstood by others.

The belief that one cannot be harmed by things that would hurt a normal person is referred to as

The invincibility fable.

Jeremy is 7 years old and has been asked to balance a scale with weights that can be hooked to the arms of the scale. Jeremy will probably

Put weights on both sides without considering distance from the center of the scale.

Elle, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens' health care. From this premise, she reasons about the particulars of how and why government-funded health care would work. This is an example of

Deductive reasoning.

Fifteen-year-old Richard wants to be allowed to drive the family car, even though he does not yet have a driver's license. When his parents ask him why he thinks he should have driving privileges, he answers, "Because I know other kids who do it, and it's just stupid that I have to wait another 3 months until I turn 16." This is an example of what kind of thinking?

Intuitive.

Over the past 50 years or so, teen births

Have decreased primarily due to greater use of contraceptives.

Effective treatments for anorexia may involve

Family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and drug therapy.

According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is to

Form a coherent identity.

The ultimate psychological goal, according to Erikson, is identity

Achievement.

Angel's parents always wanted him to be part of the family business - and Angel never questioned this. At 21, Angel decided to leave the business to become a teacher. Angel is resisting

Identity foreclosure.

During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically

Attempt to fill the role they are in, but consider it temporary.

Gender identity refers to ____________, while sexual orientation refers to __________.

Self-definition as male or female; erotic desires.

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