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Longitude

Meridians, runs north to south, 24 lines, each line is divided by 60 minutes

Holy land

Palestine

Suq

Marketplace

Greenwich Mean Time

the time all clocks are based on

Mecca

where the ka'aba is, where muhammed was born

Equator

0 degrees latitude

Continental drift

continents are slowly moving across the melted rocks below

Oasis

fertile green spot

Latitude

parallels, run east to west

Pangaea

single continent that excited 200 million years ago

Medina

where Muhammed went after he left Mecca(hejira)

International Dateline

halfway point around the earth, 180th meridian, where one day ends and one begins

Prime Meridian

0 degrees longitude

Pacific Ocean

Where is the Ring of Fire

Ziggurat

many tiered temple

Kibbutz

Jewish communal settlements in Israel

Mandate

territory from the Ottoman Empire that the League of Nations assigned to a European country after WWI

Byzantine

AD 330, the Eastern half of the Roman Empire included Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt, and the Fertile Crescent

7 Continents in order from largest to smallest

Asian, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, Oceania

Suez Canal

middle eastern waterway that links the Red and Mediterranean Seas

Occupied Territories

Gaza Strip, West Bank, Golan Heights, Sinai Peninsula (lands gained during the 6 day war)

1884 International Meridian Conference

agreed to divide the world into 24 times zones measured from the Prime Meridian in Greenwich, England

AQIM

Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb

AQAP

Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula

3 Largest Al Qaeda Affiliates

Pakistani Taliban, Haqqani Network, Lashkar e Tayyiba

OPEC

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

AQP

Al Qaeda in Pakistan

PLO

Palestinian Liberation Organization

Haqqani Network

operates in Afghanistan to target U.S. troops and remove them from Afghanistan, trains in Pakistan

Security Council

15 members (5 permanent); get to vote in the UN

United Nations

a worldwide association founded in 1945 to resolve conflicts

League of Nations

a failed organization to settle disagreements and stop future wars

Quaraysh

Muhammed's tribe

Sunni

liberal muslims, majority

Islam

submission, surrender

Shi'ites

very strict, only in Iraq/Iran, 10% of Muslims

Minaret

tower connected to a mosque

Hejira

the migration of Muhammed and his tribe from Mecca to Medina

Hajj

pilgrimage to Mecca

Anti

semitism- hatred/fear of Jews

Jihad

struggle every Muslim has to follow the rules of Islam

Monotheism

belief in one God

Torah

first 5 books of the bible, followed by the Jews

Judaism

Jewish religion

Holocaust

the genocide of 6 million Jews in Europe, led by Hitler

Parable

short story with a moral

Diaspora

the exile of Jews from Palestine by the Babylonians

Koran

Muslim holy book, recitation

Mosque

muslim place of worship

Zionism

the movement created to give Jews a homeland in Palestine

Polytheism

belief in many gods

Islamic movement

when Muslims wanted to go back to an ancient (Koran) form of government

5 pillars of Islam

Belief in one God and that Muhammed is his prophet, pray 5 times a day facing Mecca, give to the poor, cannot eat/drink in the daylight during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca

martyr

a person who would die or suffer for their beliefs

Kaaba

monument built by Abraham in Mecca that Muslims worship

Balfour Declaration

1917, said that there would be a Jewish state in Palestine, but not to the expense of the Arabs living there

Day of rage

arab spring protest

Masada

the cliff fort where all the Jews killed themselves instead of becoming Roman slaves

Intifada

shaking, Palestinian uprisings towards Israel

Camp David Accords

1978; treaty between Egypt and Israel signed by Begin and Sadat

Yom Kippur War

1973; Iraq, Egypt, Syria, and Jordan attacked Israel to regain the lands lost from the 6 day war

War of Independence

May 1948, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, and Lebanon attacked Israel

Six Day War

1967, Israel launched a preemptive strike attack on Egypt fearing attack from Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Jordan. Israel gained the West Bank, Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights

Crusade

holy war (against Muslims)

Embargo

complete halt to trade

Reprisals

Forceful acts in response to injury

Social media

modern ways of communication. Example: Twitter or Facebook

Arab Spring

a revolutionary wave of protests in the Arab World that started December 18, 2010

Effects of Globalization

integration of economies, corporate expansion, corporate domination

Nationalism

extreme support for your country

Partition

to split into different. Example: Israel

Exponential

rapid increase over a short period of time

Globalization

moving towards all the countries being connected by their economies

BRIC

Brazil Russia India China, the 4 most powerful economic nations by 2014

Goodbye

Dah-svee-dahn-yah

Hello

drahs-vwee-the

You are Welcome

Pah-zhahl-oos-tah

Thank you

Spa-See-Bah

Good Afternoon

doh-brih-dyen

Good Morning

doh-broh-oo-trah

Good, Fine, Excellent

hah-rah-shoh

How are you

Kahk dee-lah

Mossad

national intelligence agency of Israel

Communism

the idea that government owns all means of production

Theocracy

a government subject to religious authority

Weightless Economy

an economic that relies on the thinking skills of the people, not raw materials

Millet

non-muslim (free religion) communities in the Ottoman Empire

Occupy Wall Street

protests started that are speaking out against corporate greed and social inequality

Socialism

public and private ownership of the means of production

Cuneiform

ancient Sumerian form of writing using tablets

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