Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Humanistic/Existential

These therapies share the assumption that psychological problems stem from feelings of alienation and loneliness.

Humanistic approach

Feelings of alienation and loneliness can be traced to failures to reach one's potential.

Existential approach

Feelings of alienation and loneliness can be traced from failures to find meaning in life.

Person-centered therapy

An approach to therapy that assumes all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist.

Psychoanalytic

Assumes that humans are born with aggressive and sexual urges that are repressed during childhood development through the use of defense mechanisms. Encourage their clients to bring these repressed conflicts into consciousness so that the clients can understand them and reduce their unwanted influences.

Free association

The client reports every thought that enters the mind, without censorship or filtering. This strategy allows the stream of consciousness to flow unimpeded.

Dream analysis

Treat dreams as metaphors that symbolize unconscious conflicts or wishes and that contain disguised clues that the therapist can help the client understand.

Interpretation

This is the process by which the therapist deciphers the meaning (e.g., unconscious impulses or fantasies) underlying what the client says and does. Is used throughout therapy, during free association and dream analysis, as well as in other aspects of the treatment. The analyst suggests possible meanings to the client, looking for signs that the correct meaning has been discovered.

Transference

An event that occurs in psychoanalysis when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client's life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies.

Interpersonal

A form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improves current relationships.

Cognitive therapy

A form of psychotherapy that involves helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world. Replacing unrealistic negative thoughts with more realistic thoughts.

Behavior therapy

Assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors.

Exposure therapy

An approach to treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response.

Systematic desensitization

A procedure in which a client relaxes all the muscles of his or her body while imagining being in increasingly frightening situations.

Operant principles

Focus on reinforcement and punishment.

Group therapy

A technique in which multiple participants (who often do not know one another at the outset) work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere.

Couples therapy

Is when a married, cohabitating, or dating couple is seen together in therapy to work on problems usually arising within the relationship.

Family therapy

Psychotherapy involving members of a family. If an individual may be having a problem- say an adolescent is abusing alcohol-but the source of the problem is the individual's relationship with family members. It can be effective when adolescent children are having problems. The "client" is the entire family.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

A blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies. This technique acknowledges that there may be behaviors that people cannot control through rational thought but also that there are ways of helping people think more rationally when thought does play a role. Is "problem focused," meaning that it is undertake for specific problems, and "action oriented," meaning that the therapist tries to assist the client in selecting specific strategies to help address those problems. The client is expected to do things, such as practice relaxation exercises or use a diary to monitor relevant symptoms.

Schizophrenia

Is characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior. Is diagnosed when two or more symptoms emerge during a continuous period of at least 1 month with signs of the disorder persisting for at least 6 months: delusion, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized behavior or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms.

Delusion

Is a patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in spite of its irrationality. Believe that they are Joan of Arc, Jesus Christ, or some other famous person, and believe that the CIA, demons, extraterrestrials, or other malevolent forces are conspiring to harm them.

Hallucination

Is a false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation. 66% report hearing voices repeatedly.

Disorganized speech

Is a severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topics.

Grossly disorganized behavior

Is behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances. A patient might exhibit constant childlike silliness, improper sexual heavier, disheveled appearance, or loud shouting or swearing. Specific motor disturbances might include strange movements, rigid posturing, odd mannerisms, bizarre grimacing, or hyperactivity.

Catatonic behavior

Is a marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and over activity.

Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Include emotional and social withdrawal; apathy; poverty of speech; and other indications of the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion.

Paranoid schizophrenia

Symptoms dominated by absurd, illogical, and changeable delusions, frequently accompanied by vivid hallucinations, with a resulting impairment of critical judgment and erratic, unpredictable, and occasionally dangerous behaviors.

Catatonic schizophrenia

Often characterized by alternating periods of extreme withdrawal and extreme excitement, although in some cases one or the other reaction predominates. In the withdrawal reaction, there is a sudden loss of all animation and a tendency to remain motionless for hours or even days in a single position.

Disorganized schizophrenia

Usually occurs at an earlier age than most other types and represents a more severe disintegration of the personality. Emotional distortion and blunting typically are manifested in inappropriate laughter and silliness, peculiar mannerisms, and bizarre, often obscene behavior.

Undifferentiated schizophrenia

A pattern of symptoms in which there is rapidly changing mixture of all or most of the primary indicators of this disease. Commonly observed are indications of perplexity, confusion, emotional turmoil, delusions, excitement, dreamlike withdrawal, depression, and fear. Most often this picture is seen in patients who are in the process of breaking down and developing this disease. It is also seen, however, when major adjustment demands impinge on a person with an already-established schizophrenic psychosis.

Residual schizophrenia

Mild indication of this disease is shown by individuals in remission following a schizophrenic episode.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set