These therapies share the assumption that psychological problems stem from feelings of alienation and loneliness.
Feelings of alienation and loneliness can be traced to failures to reach one's potential.
Feelings of alienation and loneliness can be traced from failures to find meaning in life.
An approach to therapy that assumes all individuals have a tendency toward growth and that this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist.
Assumes that humans are born with aggressive and sexual urges that are repressed during childhood development through the use of defense mechanisms. Encourage their clients to bring these repressed conflicts into consciousness so that the clients can understand them and reduce their unwanted influences.
The client reports every thought that enters the mind, without censorship or filtering. This strategy allows the stream of consciousness to flow unimpeded.
Treat dreams as metaphors that symbolize unconscious conflicts or wishes and that contain disguised clues that the therapist can help the client understand.
This is the process by which the therapist deciphers the meaning (e.g., unconscious impulses or fantasies) underlying what the client says and does. Is used throughout therapy, during free association and dream analysis, as well as in other aspects of the treatment. The analyst suggests possible meanings to the client, looking for signs that the correct meaning has been discovered.
An event that occurs in psychoanalysis when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client's life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies.
A form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improves current relationships.
A form of psychotherapy that involves helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world. Replacing unrealistic negative thoughts with more realistic thoughts.
Assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors.
An approach to treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response.
A procedure in which a client relaxes all the muscles of his or her body while imagining being in increasingly frightening situations.
Focus on reinforcement and punishment.
A technique in which multiple participants (who often do not know one another at the outset) work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere.
Is when a married, cohabitating, or dating couple is seen together in therapy to work on problems usually arising within the relationship.
Psychotherapy involving members of a family. If an individual may be having a problem- say an adolescent is abusing alcohol-but the source of the problem is the individual's relationship with family members. It can be effective when adolescent children are having problems. The "client" is the entire family.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
A blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies. This technique acknowledges that there may be behaviors that people cannot control through rational thought but also that there are ways of helping people think more rationally when thought does play a role. Is "problem focused," meaning that it is undertake for specific problems, and "action oriented," meaning that the therapist tries to assist the client in selecting specific strategies to help address those problems. The client is expected to do things, such as practice relaxation exercises or use a diary to monitor relevant symptoms.
Is characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior. Is diagnosed when two or more symptoms emerge during a continuous period of at least 1 month with signs of the disorder persisting for at least 6 months: delusion, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized behavior or catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms.
Is a patently false belief system, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in spite of its irrationality. Believe that they are Joan of Arc, Jesus Christ, or some other famous person, and believe that the CIA, demons, extraterrestrials, or other malevolent forces are conspiring to harm them.
Is a false perceptual experience that has a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation. 66% report hearing voices repeatedly.
Is a severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topics.
Grossly disorganized behavior
Is behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances. A patient might exhibit constant childlike silliness, improper sexual heavier, disheveled appearance, or loud shouting or swearing. Specific motor disturbances might include strange movements, rigid posturing, odd mannerisms, bizarre grimacing, or hyperactivity.
Is a marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and over activity.
Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Include emotional and social withdrawal; apathy; poverty of speech; and other indications of the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion.
Symptoms dominated by absurd, illogical, and changeable delusions, frequently accompanied by vivid hallucinations, with a resulting impairment of critical judgment and erratic, unpredictable, and occasionally dangerous behaviors.
Often characterized by alternating periods of extreme withdrawal and extreme excitement, although in some cases one or the other reaction predominates. In the withdrawal reaction, there is a sudden loss of all animation and a tendency to remain motionless for hours or even days in a single position.
Usually occurs at an earlier age than most other types and represents a more severe disintegration of the personality. Emotional distortion and blunting typically are manifested in inappropriate laughter and silliness, peculiar mannerisms, and bizarre, often obscene behavior.
A pattern of symptoms in which there is rapidly changing mixture of all or most of the primary indicators of this disease. Commonly observed are indications of perplexity, confusion, emotional turmoil, delusions, excitement, dreamlike withdrawal, depression, and fear. Most often this picture is seen in patients who are in the process of breaking down and developing this disease. It is also seen, however, when major adjustment demands impinge on a person with an already-established schizophrenic psychosis.
Mild indication of this disease is shown by individuals in remission following a schizophrenic episode.