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Unit 1: The Unity of Life

The following sequence indicates the flow of energy (indicated by the arrows) from the sun to the energy required to move a protein within a cell. Which of the following best completes this?

sunlight → photosynthesis → ________ → ________ → ________ → phosphorylation → protein movement

A) oxygen, ATP, carbon dioxide
B) carbon dioxide, glucose, water
C) ATP, cellular respiration, glucose
D) glucose, cellular respiration, ATP
E) cellular respiration, glucose, fermentation

D) glucose, cellular respiration, ATP

The light-capturing reactions of photosynthesis _________.

A) convert light energy to chemical energy in ATP
B) convert light energy to chemical energy in glucose (or G3P)
C) use light energy to transfer chemical energy in ATP to chemical energy in glucose (or G3P)
D) use light energy to transfer chemical energy in glucose (or G3P) to chemical energy in ATP

A) convert light energy to chemical energy in ATP

What does it mean to say that CO₂ becomes fixed?

A) it is buried underground as fossil fuel
B) it is oxidized in an exergonic reaction
C) it is released as a gas during cellular respiration
D) it is released as a gas by the burning of fossil fuel
E) it becomes bonded into an organic compound

E) it becomes bonded into an organic compound

Why does chlorophyll appear green?

A) Only green light is absorbed because green light contains more energy for photosynthesis than any other wavelength.
B) Green light is reflected because the energy of a green photon is NOT ENOUGH to excite an electron in a chlorophyll molecule to a higher state.
C) Green light is reflected because the energy of a green photon is TOO GREAT, and causes an excited electron to be ejected from the chlorophyll molecule.
D) Only green light is absorbed because the energy of a green photon excites an electron EXACTLY ONE energy state higher, where it is stable and remains in equilibrium.
E) Green light is reflected because the energy of a green photon is MORE THAN NEEDED to excite an electron of a chlorophull molecule one energy state higher, but NOT ENOUGH to excite it two energy states higher.

E) Green light is reflected because the energy of a green photon is MORE THAN NEEDED to excite an electron of a chlorophull molecule one energy state higher, but NOT ENOUGH to excite it two energy states higher.

Which of the following is most directly responsible for converting the energy from a photon of light to chemical energy?

A) the Calvin Cycle
B) the release of energy due to fluorescence
C) reflection of certain wavelengths of light energy
D) the transfer of an electron to an organic compound by the reaction center
E) the transfer of energy between chlorophyll molecules in the antenna complex

D) the transfer of an electron to an organic compound by the reaction center

How does the OVERALL reaction (i.e. the major inputs and outputs) of photosynthesis compare to that of cellular respiration?

A) identical inputs, but different outputs
B) identical outputs, but different inputs
C) same basic reaction, but plants use light, and animals use glucose
D) most inputs of one reaction are the outputs of the other, and vice versa
E) cellular respiration is virtually identical to the Calvin Cycle; the light-capturing reactions are unique to plants

D) most inputs of one reaction are the outputs of the other, and vice versa

True or false? Oxygen (O₂) is an input of the light-capturing reactions of photosynthesis.

A) True
B) False

B) False

True or false? Oxygen (O₂) is an input of aerobic cellular respiration.

A) True
B) False

A) True

True or false? ATP is an output of the light-capturing reactions of photosynthesis.

A) True
B) False

A) True

True or false? Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is an output of aerobic cellular respiration.

A) True
B) False

A) True

True or false? ATP is an output of the Calvin Cycle.

A) True
B) False

B) False

In which site within the chloroplast would you expect to find chlorophyll molecules?

X points to the stroma.
Y points to a granum/thylakoid.
Z points to the membranes.

A) Site X
B) Site Y
C) Site Z
D) both Sites X and Y, but not Z
E) both sites X and Z, but not Y

B) Site Y

When compared to an otherwise identical larger cell, a small cell will:

A) require less oxygen for cellular respiration per minute, but acquire it by diffusion more rapidly
B) require more oxygen for cellular respiration per minute, and acquire it by diffusion more rapidly
C) require less oxygen for cellular respiration per minute, and acquire it by diffusion more slowly
D) require more oxygen for cellular respiration per minute, but acquire it by diffusion more slowly

C) require less oxygen for cellular respiration per minute, and acquire it by diffusion more slowly

[A diagram of two beakers filled with water connected by a short, medium-width black membrane. Jar X, on the left, contains more particles than Jar Y, on the right.]

Which of the following best describes the net direction of diffusion and the movement of individual solute molecules that will occur?

A) diffusion from X to Y; solute molecules will only move from Jar X to Jar Y
B) diffusion from Y to X; solute molecules will only move from Jar Y to Jar X
C) diffusion from X to Y; solute molecules will move from Jar X to Jar Y AND Jar Y to Jar X
D) diffusion from Y to X; solute molecules will move from Jar X to Jar Y AND from Jar Y to Jar X
E) no diffusion; solute molecules will move from Jar X to Jar Y and from Jar Y to Jar X

C) diffusion from X to Y; solute molecules will move from Jar X to Jar Y AND Jar Y to Jar X

[A diagram showing two cells; Cell 1 is spherical, and Cell 2 is cylindrical. Both have radius = 3.]

Which cell acquires O₂ from outside the cell (via diffusion) at a faster rate?

A) Cell 1 [spherical cell]
B) Cell 2 [cylindrical cell]
C) both cells will acquire O₂ at the same rate

B) Cell 2

[Diagram of beakers of water connected by black bars (membranes). The height of the bar represents the area of membrane in contact with each beaker, and the length of the black bar represents the distance through which solutes must diffuse through the membrane.]

In which of the configurations would the rate of diffusion be lowest?

A) Left jar high concentration, right jar low concentration, long and thin black bar.
B) Left jar high concentration, right jar low concentration, short and tall black bar.
C) Left jar high concentration, right jar low concentration, long and tall black bar.
D) Left jar high concentration, right jar high concentration, short and medium black bar.

D) Left jar high concentration, right jar high concentration, short and medium black bar.

[Diagram of beakers of water connected by black bars (membranes). The height of the bar represents the area of membrane in contact with each beaker, and the length of the black bar represents the distance through which solutes must diffuse through the membrane.]

In which of the configurations would the rate of diffusion be highest?

A) Left jar high concentration, right jar low concentration, long and thin black bar.
B) Left jar high concentration, right jar low concentration, short and tall black bar.
C) Left jar high concentration, right jar low concentration, long and tall black bar.
D) Left jar high concentration, right jar high concentration, short and medium black bar.

B) Left jar high concentration, right jar low concentration, short and tall black bar.

Why do most organisms that use cellular respiration use aerobic, rather than anaerobic, cellular respiration?

A) most organisms are heterotrophs
B) hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) gas is poisonous
C) there is more oxygen in the atmosphere than any other gas
D) aerobic cellular respiration produces more ATP per molecule of glucose

D) aerobic cellular respiration produces more ATP per molecule of glucose

Carbon dioxide (CO₂) content of the atmosphere has been increasing for at least 200 years, and is likely to continue increasing in the future. Which metabolic reaction(s) likely will become easier as a result?

A) Calvin cycle
B) the hydrolysis of ATP
C) aerobic cellular respiration
D) anaerobic cellular respiration
E) light-capturing reactions of photosynthesis

A) Calvin cycle

True or false? In aerobic cellular respiration, the energy in the chemical bonds of glucose molecules is transferred to the bonds of ATP molecules.

A) True
B) False

A) True

Which best describes the role of glucose in providing energy for work done in a cell?

A) It is the main source of energy for heterotrophs, but NOT autotrophs.
B) It converts specific wavelengths of solar energy (light) to chemical energy.
C) It can be processed to form complex carbohydrates such as cellulose and wood tissues.
D) It supplies chemical energy to recycle ADP (adenosine diphosphate) into ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

D) It supplies chemical energy to recycle ADP (adenosine diphosphate) into ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Photosynthesis evolved about 2.5 billion years ago. Which of the following metabolic reactions likely was common among organisms for the billion years of life history before this?

A) Calvin cycle
B) the hydrolysis of ATP
C) aerobic cellular respiration
D) anaerobic cellular respiration
E) light-capturing reactions of photosynthesis

D) anaerobic cellular respiration

Which if the following is true?

A) most autotrophs perform photosynthesis, but not cellular respiration
B) most autotrophs perform both photosynthesis AND cellular respiration
C) most heterotrophs perform photosynthesis, but not cellular respiration
D) most heterotrophs perform both photosynthesis AND cellular respiration

B) most autotrophs perform both photosynthesis AND cellular respiration

[A diagram showing an electron moving rom the 3rd electron shell to the 2nd electron shell.]

Which of the following is most likely?

A) energy is released (e.g. as light, heat, etc.)
B) light energy has been captured as chemical energy
C) chemical potential energy of this atom did not change
D) the electron will spontaneously return to the 3rd electron shell
E)

A) energy is released (e.g. as light, heat, etc.)

[Graph of the potential energy of the reactants (A-C and B-D) and the products (A-B and C-D) of a chemical reaction. The potential energy of the reactants is higher than that of the products.]

This is most likely a(n) __________ reaction (assume there is no change in entropy or temperature).

A) kinetic
B) hydrolysis
C) endergonic
D) exergonic

D) exergonic

Cellular processes that require ATP typically involve ____________ reactions. (HINT: this question is not asking about the reactions in which ATP is consumed, but the reactions that require ATP to be consumed in order to proceed.)

A) aerobic
B) anaerobic
C) hydrolysis
D) exergonic
E) endergonic

E) endergonic

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